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MGT 318

by: Mara Notetaker
Mara Notetaker

GPA 3.58

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These notes covers all material covered in class and helps with preparing for the test
Organizational Development
Dr. Michael Beitler
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mara Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 318, 13275 at University of North Carolina at Greensboro taught by Dr. Michael Beitler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Organizational Development in Business, management at University of North Carolina at Greensboro.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
MGT 318 all covered chapters and guide. Know why a strategy-driven approach to org change is critical. Without a strategic driven approach, every other approach is bound to fail until all organization members are aware of the organizational mission and its strategy to fulfill that mission. Be sure you know the three types of consulting models (described by Edgar Schein), and when each one is appropriate. Three consulting approaches: the expert model, the doctor-patient model and the process consultation model Expert model: Client diagnoses and defines the problem Appropriate use is based on: -The client correctly communicating relevant facts to consultants. -The client properly diagnosing and defining the problem -The client understanding the effect of ‘turning over’ the problem to the consultant Doctor-Patient model- Client describes symptoms, consultant diagnoses and defines the problem. Appropriate use is based on: -The client correctly communicating the relevant ‘symptoms’ to the consultant -The consultant properly diagnosing and defining the problem -The client understanding the effect on the organization of turning over the ‘problem’ to the consultant. Process consulting model- Consultant and client collaboratively diagnose and define the problem. -Consultant and client develop solution and action plan Client makes ultimate decision on what actions to take Understand the possible negative reactions a client may have when working with a consultant/facilitator. Psychodynamics of helping: Possible reactions/feelings from the client -Resentment & defensiveness -Relief and dependency-“glad you’re here” -Transference: consultant is perceived as a past authority figure Possible reaction/feelings from the consultant -Meeting defensiveness with more pressure- “I don’t think you understand my suggestion, let me explain in a simple way”. -Enjoying the power and authority, accepting and encouraging dependency -Counter transference client perceived as a past negative client. Be sure you can recognize all 10 of the concepts. Foundation of OC practice Concepts, Practice theory and Practice. The TEN concepts used in the model of OC practice: • Forcefield analysis, • Three-stages of change, • Systems of thinking, • Open systems theory, • First & Second-Order change, • Participative management, • Teams & Diversity, • Conflict Management, • Appropriate Leadership, • Action research Lewin’s Forcefield analysis: Kurt Lewin is responsible for three out of the ten concepts that support OC practice namely: Forcefield analysis, three stages of change and Action research model. Lewin believes that the status quo is as a result of driving forces and resisting forces within. Three stages of change: Lewin believed that OC consultant must first help the organization see the dysfunctionality (ineffectiveness) of the current situation, move the organization to change its current behavior, then refreeze the situation • Unfreeze current situation • Moving (Implementing change) • Refreeze new situation (new status quo) Know the six-steps of the Action Research Model, and why each step must be collaborative. Lewin’s Action Research model: This provides consultants with a model to effectively apply social science principles to help their clients. • Data Gathering- from client members • Data feedback- to client members • Diagnosis- with client members • Action planning- with client members • Action taking (OC interventions) - with client members • Evaluations-with client members Participative management: this discusses how companies or managers began applying interactive processes between employers/ managers and employees/subordinates. Teams and diversity: Diversity functions as an advantage and disadvantage in teams. Appropriate management: Manager directed (autocratic)-participation- employee directed (laissez faire) Know how to determine an appropriate leadership style. (Think Situational Leadership) Situational Leadership: In any situation, the leader and follower work towards the task itself. Understand why attempting conflict “elimination” can be a bad thing. Conflict can be functional and dysfunctional (management), when conflict is functional, it could stimulate the organization (client, employees) towards positive change Chapter 3 Understand the levels (types) of Active Inquiry. Pure- consultants convey readiness to listen, consultant prompts to get more of the story e.g. hand on lip example. Ask ‘who’ & ‘when’ question, ‘why questions could drag the interviewee to a different spot of the conversation- anger, emotion. Exploratory/diagnostic- This helps to stimulate thinking and understanding their reaction. ‘How did you feel about that’, ‘how did you react to that’. In hypothesis about case, ‘why do you suppose that happened’, ‘why did you/he/she/them do that?’, ‘what to do next’. Confrontative- This must not occur before pure or diagnostic inquiry. It asks “did you confront him/her/them about that”, “did it occur to you that you/he/she/them are feeling anxiety about the situation” Understand what is meant by “face work.” Face work: Exposed face us when a client has a problem or is exposed for doing something wrong. -client feels “one down”, client will test consultant trustworthiness, not reveal “real problem” at first. Interviewing clients sometimes leads to client’s soul searching and reflecting on the situation till they can figure out a solution. Express to client: his/her input is worth more than he/she claims. -it is okay to have a problem (share similar situations you’ve dealt with in the past) Granting face to client-I will be a source of support, while you figure the situation out- “I will help you help yourself”.


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