Last Class Notes Before EXAM 1 (2/3/16)
Last Class Notes Before EXAM 1 (2/3/16) BIOL 30603
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 30603 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Akkaraju, Dr. Misamore, Dr. Chumley, Dr. McGillvray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
2316 Last Class notes before Exam 1 Review Questions as you are exposed to things in life your epigenetic change the modifications on your histones diverge RNA polymerase doesn t need a start codon a start codon is only used in translation not transcription operons can be regulated by repressor proteins opertaor is not a protein its a piece of DNA it binds to the tryptophan repressor and shuts off the operon snRNPs are a mix of protein and RNA it hybridizes with the intron exon junctions U1 and U2 bind to the junctions and they are brought together by UA and U6 multiple snRNPs interact with each other to splice spicing always goes from 3 to 5 you can skip exons from one genes you can get five different RNA strands and get five different proteins from one gene Splicing mutation causes microcephalic osteodysplactic primordial dwarfism a mutation in a gene encoding snRNA Polyadenylation here it moves from premRNA gt mRNA moves out of the nucleus and the mRNA nucleopore checking system that makes sure only mature mRNA comes out when it comes out of the cell initiator factors bind to the mRNA in PROKARYOTES polycistronic mRNA they have multiple start codons so one mRNA can make 3 proteins Eukaryotes separation of location for transcription and translation Prokaryotes not separate Translation mRNA gt protein genetic code is decoded by tRNA one end is called anti codon and binds to the mRNA and other end has the amino acid Amino acyl tRNA synthetase job is to attach one amino acid to the tRNA these are super specific this is important because the tRNA could go off and attach that wrong amino acid so it proofreads by checking the sequence of the tRNA and the amino acid has two active sites synthesizing and editing checks twice and removes wrong amino acid if need be Ribosomes build protein ribosomal RNA has enzyme activity so it is called a ribozyme RNA enzyme E site P side A side goes in the 5 to 3 direction ribosomes are stuck on the ER In the active site ribosomal RNA presents an Adenine to help with building of the protein ask elF2 binds to the small ribosomal complex and forms the pre initiation couples that goes and binds to the cap elF4E starts to slide down the mRNA looking for the start codon when it finds it the large ribosomal subunit binds and begins making proteins remember steps of this energy for protein synthesis comes from GTP nitiation elongation termination Termination the last bond between the amino acid on the polypeptide and tRNA gets broken by hydrolysis These drugs only bind to the bacterial ribosome bacteria reproduces so fast that the active sites change and become resistant to the antibiotics do know the targets of all the drugs How does a cell know that a protein needs to be degraded it tags it with polyubiquitin then it is dragged over to the proteasome like a hollow barrel and inside there are proteases that chew up the protein ubitiquin tag is not degraded and recycled this is important in the cell cycle because not only bad proteins are degraded but proteins that are not needed at the time Examples of gene regulation All cells contain all the genes in the genome different cells in the body and turn on different genes taking a skin cells and turning into the embryonic cell in diseases you want to determine which genes are on and off in a cell Microarray is divided into sections and each one has a particular square in it each square you glue mRNA from different genes then you take a cell and break the cell and extract RNA and you let the RNA hybridize to the microarray mRNA and the square will glow showing you which mRNA is being produced in the cell also can see the volume of those mRNA by the intensity of the glow Even gene expression control occurs in the protein activity control DNA binding proteins heixturnheix zinc fingers uecine zippers a bind to the major groove of DNA they help RNA polymerase bind to DNA