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Week Four Notes

by: Grace Gibson

Week Four Notes 3330

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > 3330 > Week Four Notes
Grace Gibson
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About this Document

These are the notes from lecture.
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Alley
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
MEMORY: Part I Remembering requires 3 processes: 1. Encoding (acquisition) 2. “Storage” (retention) 3. Ret__________ Types of Memory Tasks I. Explicit – requires conscious recollection 1. Recall A. Free {à clustering} vs. Serial B. Cued (probed) vs. uncued 2. Recognition 3. Relearning - measure savings in time or trials for remastery II. Implicit (implied) – seen when previous experience affects performance on tasks that do not require explicit memory. e.g., Sentence Completion tasks - increased use of specific words as a result of recent exposure. Ebbinghaus (1885: On Memory) - 1 scientific studies of memory first person to really study human memory Method: N=1 (H.E.); invented CVC nonsense syllable; - tested retention using relearning following complete mastery - had rigid control, but "ruthless simplification" he did a massive amount of research where he just tested himself over and over again but he did discover several fundamental things about memory invented the idea of nonsense syllables you can’t associate nonsense syllables with something you already know there’s nothing special about these lists of syllables, so they can easily be generalized to other things he went over these things over and over again until he had it down perfectly he tested using relearning following complete mastery (how long does it take me to get it all memorized again) he had rigid control over the experiment, but people said he simplified it way too much problem: most of the stuff we keep in memory IS meaningful Results: (1) short list can be mastered in one trial this went against what they knew at this time (behaviorism) because there was no repetition and reinforcement required (2) Spacing effect: increased retention from distributed vs. massed studying it you try and memorize things over time you’ll memorize it better than studying in a short time the memory will last better if you space it out rather than cramming (3) Forgetting Curve: increased retention interval leads to less retention but decreasing rate of forgetting. as the retention interval goes up (period between experiencing something and trying to remember it), you don’t remember as much but you forget things at a much more rapid rate right after you learn them as time goes on, the time it takes you to forget things slows down LOOK UP PICTURE OF FORGETTING CURVE this is good because is we lost memory that quickly consistently, all human would be gone pretty quickly Traditional Theories of Memory Stage Theory - persistence of memories depends on which memory "store" is used. An information-processing approach. Most models include 2 or 3 stages (stores): 1) Sensory Memory – modality specific; ex. Iconic (visual) & Echoic memory we hold for a really limited period of time (just sensory info coming in) our senses provide us with all sorts of info but it won’t get registered until we attend to it and then is sent to STM sensory memory is very fragile and brief (can be less than a second) modality specific (iconic or echoic memory) is it visual or auditory, etc… iconic is visual and echoic is auditory 2) Short-Term Memory (STM or STS) rehearsing memory in STM makes it stay there longer 3) Long-Term Memory (LTM or LTS (Long-Term Store)) consolidation can take temporary memories and make them more permanent retrieval is just going to get LTM Sensory Memory · believed to be the initial repository of information from the senses · this info. is either transferred (processed) or erased · Early research using “whole report” found a span of apprehension @ 4-5 letters … but how much can really be “seen” in an instant? if we just flash letters in front of people, and as soon as we get past four letters, it drops off and almost nobody can get all six letters span of apprehension: about what you can take in in an instant people often claim they saw/heard more than they can report a grad student came up with the idea that if they can’t report things in time, we should only ask them to report some of the letters Partial Report Technique: people are just supposed to report some of what they’ve seen there would be a tone to let them know which row to report (but they only gave them the tone to report which row after the display of letters was gone) people would be able to report most or all letters in their row the presumption is that they would be able to report the letters in any row if they can do this for the whole report technique, people were only taking in four letters on average if we signal them at the exact moment the display goes away, they get a bit more than ¾ letters on average we conclude from this that there is a brief form of memory that fades away before we can report it so we are taking in much more than we can report if we delay the reporting by one second, they’re already down to only two letters · It has a very brief duration; so short that memories may not last as long as it takes to report what you’ve seen or heard most of this just goes away because we never attend to it and therefore process it allows us to hold unprocessed information for a moment until we have time to process it · Partial Report technique (Sperling) · versus whole report · à we do take in more than we can report. 1. Iconic memory = visual sensory memory · Duration » 200-400 msec (incredibly brief) · required for ‘matching’ of information received in different eye fixations? this is required to process information that we’re getting from our different eye fixations if we had no memory for what we’re seeing right now, we would be super confused like every time we blink 2. Echoic memory = auditory sensory memory · Duration » 2.5 sec. · Essential for speech perception? critical for us to understand what someone’s talking about sometimes people start saying things that don’t make any sense until they say a little more so if we couldn’t remember the beginning of what they said, we’d be lost Traditional Stage Theory: STM & LTM A. Primary Distinctions between STM & LTM included: 1) Duration: 18-25 seconds (STS) vs. years or permanent 2) Capacity: 7+2 "chunks" (Miller, 1956) vs. unlimited {note: STM capacity is aka “memory span”} 3) Maintenance: STM by rehearsal; LTM by use 4) Retrieval: STM rapid & fairly immune to retrieval failures LTM slower & subject to retrieval failures B. Other findings used as Evidence: 1) Recall (STM) declines quickly without rehearsal (Peterson & Peterson, 1959) famous study found that if we put stuff into STM and we don’t allow rehearsal, short term memory only last about 20-25 seconds we were given a task of counting backwards by 3s in between being given something to remember and having to recall it since these are numbers and they’re trying to remember letters, they won’t interfere with each other after only 18 seconds, they’re down to only remember ten percent remembering 2) Serial Position Curve: better memory for items at the beginning and end of lists A. Primacy effect – attributed to rehearsal better memory for things at the beginning of the list B. Recency effect – suggests a fragile & brief form of memory short delay causes loss of information in the short term memory so the last items in the list must be recalled from LTM better memory for things at the end of the list (most recent) if you make someone wait 30 seconds to recall, they don’t recall those recent data so well because they are not so recent Some Distinctions between ST and LT memory are NOT clear-cut 1) Duration of memory seems to be continuously variable for LTM, it seems to be continuously variable (we remember things for all different durations) 2) Capacity (Memory span): variable (vs. 7+2); can be increased by: a. Chunking - semantic (e.g., 1492) or rhythmic b. Practice (e.g., à digit span > 60) c. using material that can be pronounced quickly (see working memory) (if they can say it quickly, their memory span appears to go up) at practice, we will get better at this digit span (How many numbers in a string can we remember) can be great than 70 chunking seems to help us remember more than 7 +/- 2 (remembering 2016 rather than 2 0 1 6) rhythmic chunking: just add rhythm to your string of numbers and it helps you remember more better some people are exceptional at memorizing things like this 3) Rehearsal: role in consolidation of memories is unclear, but simple rehearsal (repetition) seems to be neither necessary nor sufficient for LTM Evidence does support a distinction between a fragile, temporary active memory (WM) & a more permanent memory (LTM). Working Memory (*Baddeley) Working memory (WM) is a limited capacity, temporary memory system able to simultaneously store and manipulate information. Activated memory. not just a storage system we can manipulate information we have in there we often call it activated memory if we’re trying to remember someone from high school, we activate that memory · has high correlation with IQ · predicts ability to learn · impaired WM is correlated with dyslexia and is a major part of cognitive aging effects Components of WM - 2 independent subsystems + executive controller there are two independent subsystems of WM: phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad ********(distinction supported by PET scans) A. Phonological Loop - (subvocal) articulation as in rehearsal system that allows you to talk to yourself this is the same system you use to rehearse to remember numbers or something activates areas of the brain for language · Specialized system evolved for language acquisition (Baddeley) · Memory Span = amount one can pronounce, speaking quickly, in 1.5-2 sec.; not 7 + 2 items; holds across age, language & word length it is much more accurate to define memory span by the amount we can pronouce in a time rather than the number of items the words we can say faster, the faster we can rehearse them and we can remember then people that can talk fast, have more memory this holds across age, language, and word length · predicts word-length effect: memory span tends to decrease as word length (*pronunciation time) increases. {side note: length affects both rehearsal & delay in recall} · predicts acoustic similarity effect: items that sound alike are more likely to be confused or forgotten articulatory suppression: disrupted by concurrent verbal or vocal activity really prevents you from remembering interrupts the phonological loop also prevents conversion of visual to verbal material eliminates word length effect & acoustic similarity effect (for visually presented material). · predicts irrelevant speech effect: memory loss ß _____________________ immediate recall of short lists of items is impaired by irrelevant speech (and some other sounds) during encoding or retrieval B. Visuospatial Sketch Pad activates area of the brain for vision if you meet someone and want to remember them later, the phonological loop won’t be very helpful: this will can hold and manipulate visual and spatial images · disrupted by concurrent visual or spatial activity (e.g., tracking a moving spot with a stylus) C. Central Executive this is the controller of working memory· decides which working memory system to send information to e.g. if we’re driving, that’s very important so it might activate the phonological loop integrates info. from A & B links them to LTM · attentional controller working memory allows you to store and manipulate info there are two systems: language based and visual based


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