notes for 2nd week for 2/2 and 2/4
notes for 2nd week for 2/2 and 2/4 JOURN 1100
Popular in Principles of American Journalism
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Ronecker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOURN 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Joesph Moore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
2/2/16 I. Citizen Journalism a. People with no journalism background, education or training breaking down journalism’s monopoly b. How i. Technology 1. Shoot, edit, and share videos 2. Blogs 3. Disseminate information via social media 4. Fact checking journalists (CBS news and Busch’s in Vietnam) 5. Opening up a dialogue conversation c. Wikipedia, collective intelligence model i. Almost anyone can edit-‐> biased or incorrect d. “Crowdsourcing” the news i. Human rights abuses; takes in the videos and then tries to verify and then some stories make it into the news e. Covering what mainstream journalism misses f. Citizen journalism is not a new phenomenon i. 1 American newspaper (publick)-‐> had a blank page where people could put there comments and then pass the paper on to others g. People sending videos and photos to the news is not new either i. Video shown of JFK’s assassination was taken with a home video camera (sent to media outlets) h. Audiences have more tools to capture news but the major outlets deal with dissemination i. Wikileaks is not a major run media corporation i. Responsible for disclosing millions of classified documents ii. Ex) US government spying on diplomats at the UN iii. Some argue that Wikileaks’ actions are illegal and Assange should be prosecutes (government secrets) iv. Others consider it an admirable example of citizen journalism (how is it different then what the news it suppose to expose) v. Whatever one believer, WIkileaks shows the ability of non-‐ journalists to expose official corruption and criminality j. Citizen journalism really shows during tragedies; 9/11-‐> the people on the scene 1 were not the journalists but the people that were there; disseminate images before the journalists k. Example of Oscar Grant i. Footage of his killing captured by passengers on their cellphones l. Other examples i. CNN iReport ii. Demotix (site for citizen photojournalists and then can be sold to major news organizations) m. Other criticisms i. Citizen journalist labor model is exploitative ii. Could lead to staff cuts (counterargument: journalists need to verify and give context) II. Where does this leave us? a. Craft and Davis’ argument i. “Are they journalists?” is the wrong question ii. We should ask “is what they are doing journalism?” b. What’s the difference i. “Journalism is a set of transparent, independent procedures aimed at gathering, verifying and reporting truthful information of consequence to citizens in a democracy” c. Transparency i. Show the reporting and sources that support your work ii. Collaborate with audience iii. Curate and attribute information responsibly iv. Offer disclosures and statements of values v. Correct website and social media errors effectively vi. Building trust with the public; what you included and what was left out-‐editors d. Independence i. Free of external influences ii. Goal: maintain independence from those you cover (or, perhaps, could cover) iii. Appearance of conflict of interest can be damaging as a conflict itself-‐damages public trust in journalism e. The process i. Gathering info 1. Observing, interviewing, document analysis ii. Verifying it 1. Root of verify is “verify” which means “truth” 2. Involves “confirming” and “establishing” 3. Journalism akin to the scientific method iii. Reporting it iv. Truth is more than just facts 1. Placing facts into context, giving facts meaning f. Truthful information… g. …That is on consequence i. Consequence is ambiguous can mean things to different people h. Of a democracy i. Serve as a de facto government mouth piece; using sources from government with out verifying; propaganda III. The scientific method and journalism a. Principles of scientific method b. Observe the world and identify the problem c. Form the hypotheses or research questions d. Devise ways to test hypotheses or answer the research questions e. Analyze the results f. Verify or modify and repeat the process IV. Back to where we began a. The definition provides a yardstick to measure journalism i. Yes, you are a journalist if you follow the definition ii. If you are not, the NO, irrespective of platform, you are not doing journalism b. This does not make definitions crystal clear, however? i. What is the “of consequence”, for example? 2/4/16 I. Newsmaking a. What is news i. “Information”, “ news”, and “journalism” are not synonymous ii. Through the journalistic process, raw information is transformed into news iii. Journalists must organize, synthesize, and digest raw information iv. The internet produces a lot of information and its hard to navigate, but without journalism it is untested, unveted, and without context b. Gatekeeping i. “Is the process of culling and crafting countless bits of information into the limited number messages that reach people each day” (Shoemaker and Vos, 2009) ii. Decide not only what is news but how and where we hear it (front of news broadcast vs. end of) iii. Information 1. Channels: a. Routine (press releases, regular events, documents) b. Informal (talking to other journalist, seeing someone else’s news, etc.) c. Enterprise (spontaneous events found from other people, created by journalists)(investigative journalists) iv. Passes through the gate keepers and then becomes news 1. What is the process that changes information into news 2. Academic standpoint; journalists may not be conscious of these terms because they don’t reflect on the process II. What is “news”? a. “Well, news is anything that is interesting, that relates to what’s happening in the world, what’s happening in areas if the culture that would be of interest to your audience”-‐ Kurt Loder b. Only news till you’ve read then no longer news c. “When a dog bites a man that is not news, but when a man bites a dog that is news”-‐Charles Anderson Dana (deviant actions often attract the news) d. Important that journalists understand what is behind their newsworthiness III. News Values a. These factors happen to guide b. Timeliness i. Happen within past 24 hours ii. This is largely a product of the structure of news media (24 hrs. news cycle) iii. Often ignores events/processes that unfold over longer periods of time c. Impact i. The number of people affect by a news event ii. The more people affected, and the greater the effect, the more likely it is to make the news iii. Ex) Flint water issue-‐> government incompetence, fiscal problems, government agencies not doing their jobs d. Currency i. On going issues-‐ happen today its news if it happened last week then not news unless people cant stop talking about it ii. Ex) OJ Simpson trial and Monica Lewinsky Scandal iii. Different sub events to make it ongoing e. Conflict i. Narrative framework that give drama; whether they need them or not ii. Stories are naturally compelling iii. Political reporting is dominated by conflict stories iv. Can cause people to become cynical of politics because of this framework v. Conflicts are sometimes portrayed where there are none (climate change) f. Novelty i. Something unusual; human interest stories ii. Novel stories are often “deviant” in the sense that hey fall outside the norm iii. People are naturally attracted to stories about strange of “out of the ordinary” things g. Prominence i. Public figures’ activities which are important just because of their status ii. The lives of celebrities are deviant iii. Media scholars do not like celebrity news and people argue that it pacifies the masses h. Proximity i. Events that happen closer to audience are of more importance (different kinds like geographical, cultural, etc.) ii. Geographical proximity (physical distance) iii. Cultural proximity (symbolic distance) (countries that have connection with the US report their news EX) Paris attacks)(France has stronger cultural ties with Americans) i. Events are inherently newsworthy; only people deem them newsworthy IV. Values behind the values a. How do we define impact? b. When we do define these values based on what an audience wants? When do we define them by what the audience needs? c. When do news organizations’ financial concerns define these values? d. When do journalists’ conventional practices define these values?
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