Human Anatomy 2300-- Burgoon Lec #6
Human Anatomy 2300-- Burgoon Lec #6 Anatomy 2300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anatomy 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Burgoon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Anatomy 2300Lec#6 MYOLOGY Myology—the study of muscles Muscles --Function: use ATP to generate force --Stimulation comes from nerves, intrinsic system regulation (neighboring muscles), hormones, etc. --Responsible for body movements --Contain myofilaments (i.e. actin & myosin) which interact to produce tension --Myo, mys, sarco = muscles --Muscle tissue = cells with a common function, cardiac, skeletal, and smooth. Muscle organ = at least two primary tissues working together --Muscle cell is the same as a muscle fiber Muscle Tissue --Three types 1. Skeletal… voluntary, striated. Multi-nucleated, long, cylindrical cells. Functions include locomotion, manipulating environment, facial expressions. Found attached to bones or occasionally to the skin. 2. Cardiac… involuntary, striated. Branching, generally uni-nucleated cells. Have intercalated discs that attach the cells to one another. Contracts to propel blood through the system. 3. Smooth… involuntary, non-striated. Spindle-shaped, one central nuclei. Cells usually arranged in sheets with all cells arranged in the same direction. Usually found in the walls of hallow organs (e.g. GI tract, urinary tract, etc.). Contract and relax to propel objects in body & change shapes of canals (i.e. blood vessels), and in the eye in the pupil. --Functions 1. Produce body movements… peristalsis, changing size of structures (e.g. pupil), manipulate environment (e.g. pick things up) 2. Maintaining posture… mostly skeletal muscle, fighting against gravity. 3. Stabilizing joints… to keep movements controlled to allow for precision. 4. Generating heat… aka thermogenesis. Maintain body temperature. Muscle tissue: Macroscopic structure --A skeletal muscle (i.e. organ) contains: 1. Skeletal muscle fibers 2. Blood vessels (artery, capillaries, and veins) 3. Nerve fibers 4. Connective tissue --Sheaths associated with skeletal muscle (i.e. organ) 1. Endomysium… covers the individual muscle fiber/cell 2. Perimysium… covers a group of endomysium-wrapped cells. Creates a fascicle. 3. Epimysium… covers the fascicles into groups. --All of these tissues are inter-connected and used during contraction to transfer the energy and movement. Endomysium Perimysium Epimysium Tendon Periosteum sharpey’s fibers bone --Most skeletal muscles cross at least one joint and are usually attached to the articulating bones that form a joint when that muscle contracts and shortens, it pulls one of the articulating bones towards the other; so one bone remains relatively stationary, while the other moves. --Origin: the muscle’s attachment to the immovable (or less movable) bone. --Insertion: the muscle’s attachment to the moveable bone. --These both can be…. 1. Direct attachments: the epimysium of the muscle is fused to the periosteum of the bone. 2. Indirect attachments: the muscle’s connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle as either a tendon (cord-like) or an aponeurosis (a very flat tendon), which will attach to the bone Movements at Synovial joints --Three general types of movements: 1. Gliding movement or Translation… simplest of movements. Plane joints slide over one another. Can be seen in the intertarsal and intercarpal joints, and some of the vertebrae. 2. Angular movement… includes --Flexion… making angle smaller than 180 degrees. Bringing two bones closer --extension…moving bones farther away from each other, making that angle larger. --abduction… moving a limb away from the midline or medial plane of the body. --Adduction… moving a limb towards the midline or medial plane of the body. --In wrist, middle finger is the midline. In the toes, the midline is the 2 toe. The longest digit is always the midline. --Circumduction… combo of the 4 listed above, making a cone in space while joint remains relatively still. --Movements that increase or decrease the angle between two bones. --Lateral flexion… taking body from anatomical position and leaning left or right. 3. Rotation… the turning of a bone along the horizontal axis. “No” motion with head. Lateral rotation is taking the anterior side of the bone and moving it away from the body, and the opposite for medial rotation. --There are other movements that apply to specific joints of don’t fit into these categories. These are called special movements --Dorsiflexion… brings the superior surface of the foot towards the shin --Plantar flexion… moves the foot away from the shin --Supination… refers to the movement of the radius around the ulna. Makes the radius and ulna are parallel. --Pronation… Radius rotates around the ulna. Hand comes along for the ride, and ends up facing posteriorly or face downward. --Inversion… turn sole of foot medially. Can do more of this. --Eversion… turn the sole of the foot laterally. --Protraction…anterior movement in a transverse plane. Moving mandible out anteriorly --Retraction… moving mandible out posteriorly. Also both can be done with scapula. --Elevation… moving a body part superiorly. Shrug shoulders up --Depression… moving a body part inferiorly. Bring shoulders down. --Opposition… Happens at saddle joint, taking tip of the thumb and touching the tip of other digits. Important for grasping and manipulation.
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