Human Anatomy 2300-- Burgoon Lec #7
Human Anatomy 2300-- Burgoon Lec #7 Anatomy 2300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anatomy 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Burgoon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Anatomy 2300Lec#7 MSUCLES OF THE HIP AND THIGH Muscles of the posterior gluteal region --Between the iliac crests, gluteal folds, etc. The butt. --Divided into two layers 1. Superficial muscles --Gluteus maximus… largest & most superficial. --Origin = posterior surface of ilium, sacrum, and coccyx --Insertion = iliotibial tract of fascia lata, and gluteal tuberosity of femur --Fascia lata: deep fascia that invest (surrounds) the thigh. Surrounds all the muscles to prevent the movement of contacting muscles outward, and rather transmit the energy towards the tendons more efficient use of the muscles. Also, keeps pressure on the veins to propel blood back to the heart. --Iliotibial tract: the thickened lateral portion of the fascia lata, runs from the iliac crest to the knee. Helps to stabilize the femur on top of the tibia and acts as an insertion point for gluteus maximus. --Action = extension of thigh at hip, and lateral rotation of thigh at hip --Innervation = inferior gluteal nerve (travels through the greater sciatic foramen) --Gluteus medius… under the maximus, more lateral. --Origin = external surface of ilium --Insertion = greater trochanter of femur --Action = abducts thigh at the hip (leg moves out laterally) --Innervation = superior gluteal nerve --Gluteus minimus… found deep to the medius --Origin = external surface of ilium --Insertion = greater trochanter of femur --Action = abducts thigh at the hip --Innervation = superior gluteal nerve (travels through the greater sciatic foramen) --Tensor fasciae latae --Origin = anterior portion of iliac crest --Insertion = iliotibial tract of fascia lata --Action = flexes thigh at hip, and abducts the thigh at the hip… also tenses the fascia lata to help support the femur on the tibia. --Innervation = superior gluteal nerve (travels through the greater sciatic foramen) 2. Deep muscles… Deep lateral rotators... responsible for lateral rotation and stabilization of hip joint. Origin = ilium and ischium. Insertion = greater trochanter --Piriformis… triangular in shape. Known as the organizer within greater sciatic foramen because the sciatic nerve is below it, superior gluteal nerve in above it, and the inferior gluteal nerve is below it. --Origin = anterior surface of sacrum (within the true pelvis uses the greater sciatic foramen to get to the insertion) --Insertion = greater trochanter of femur --Action = lateral rotation of thigh at the hip --Innervation = nerve to piriformis Muscles of the Anterior Hip (Iliac Region) --These muscles lie over the anterior hip joint --They flex the hip joint, and can flex the trunk or the thigh --Two major muscles 1. Psoas major --Origin = All (5) lumbar vertebra --Insertion = lesser trochanter of femur --Action = flexes hip joint, resulting in flexion of the thigh and/or trunk --Innervation = lumbar spinal nerves 2. Iliacus --Origin = iliac fossa --Insertion = lesser trochanter of femur --Action = flexes hip joint, resulting in flexion of thigh and/or trunk --Innervation = femoral nerve --Combination of these two to provide the most strong flexion at the thigh. Muscles of the Thigh --Three muscle groups surround femur and are divided from one another by connective tissue sheets. --Three groups are the anterior, medial, and posterior femoral (thigh) muscles. --Anterior compartment… most innervated by 1. Sartorius… Known as the tailor’s muscle because it allows you to cross your legs while sitting. Crosses lateral to medial. Is the longest muscle of the body. Origin = ASIS. Insertion = Medial surface of proximal tibia. Action = Flexes leg (knee joint), flexes thigh (hip joint). Innervation = femoral nerve. 2. Quadriceps femoris… some of the largest and most powerful muscles of body. Covers the front and sides of the femur. All combine into one tendon that holds the patella and inserts onto the tibia. --Rectus femoris… kicking muscle --Origin= anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulum --Insertion = tibial tuberosity --Action = extends leg (knee) and flexes thigh (hip) --Innervation = femoral nerve --Vastus lateralis --Origin = lateral lip of linea aspera --Vastus medialis… deep to the rectus femoris --Origin = medial lip of linea aspera --Vastus intermedius --Origin = anterior and lateral surfaces of shaft of femur --The three vastus muscles insert on the tibial tuberosity. Action = extends leg (knee). Innervation = femoral nerve. --Medial compartment… make up the “adductor group” 1. Gracilis… most medial. Strap-like muscle. Only one that crosses the knee joint of the medial compartment. --Origin = Pubis --Insertion = medial surface of proximal tibia --Action = adducts thigh (hip) --Innervation = obturator nerve 2. Pectineus --Origin = pubis --Insertion = posterior surface of proximal femur --Action = adducts thigh (hip), and flexes thigh (hip) --Innervation = femoral nerve 3. Adductor longus… long, fan-shaped muscle. Most superficial of the adductors. --Origin = Pubis --Insertion = Linea aspera --Action = adducts thigh (hip) --Innervation = obturator nerve 4. Adductor brevis --Same as adductor longus 5. Adductor magnus… largest of the adductor muscles. Triangular-shaped. --Origin = pubis and ischium --Insertion = linea aspera of femur and adductor tubercle of femur --Action = adductor of thigh (hip) --Innervation = obturator nerve --Posterior compartment… the “hamstring muscles” 1. Biceps femoris… only muscle that inserts on the lateral aspect of the leg --Long head… protects the sciatic nerve as it descends the thigh. --Origin = ischial tuberosity --Insertion = head of fibula (along with short head, sharing a tendon) --Action = flexes leg (knee) and extends thigh (hip) --Innervation = tibial nerve (division of sciatic nerve) --Short head… deep to the long head --Origin = linea aspera of femur --Insertion = same as long head --Action = flexes leg (knee) --Innervation = common fibular (peroneal) nerve 2. Semitendinosus… much of its length is made of tendon --Origin = ischial tuberosity --Insertion = medial surface of proximal tibia --Action = flexes leg (knee) and extends thigh (hip) --Innervation = tibial nerve (division of sciatic nerve) 3. Semimembranosus --Origin = same as 2 --Insertion = posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia --Action = same as 2 --Innervation = same as 2 --The Long head biceps femoris, and 2 & 3 all span the knee and hip joints, arise from the ischial tuberosity, are innervated by tibial nerve, and extend the thigh and flex the knee.
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