BSCI105 Chapter 4: Carbon & Molecular Diversity of Life
BSCI105 Chapter 4: Carbon & Molecular Diversity of Life Bsci105
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by clcindy.lin on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bsci105 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Alewall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biological Sciences at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
BSCI105: Chapter 4: Carbon & the Molecular Diversity of Life 2/3/16 9:34 AM 4.1: Organic chemistry: the study of carbon compounds • Organic Molecules & the origin of life on Earth o Stanley Miller: concluded, in his experiment, that complex organic molecules could arise spontaneously under conditions thought at that time to have existed on early Earth. ▯ The experiment also supported that idea that abiotic synthesis of organic compounds could have been an early stage in the origin of life. 4.2: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to 4 other atoms. • Electrons configuration: determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form w/other atoms • Formations of bonds with carbon: o Carbon has 6 electrons: 2 in the 1 electron shell & 4 in the nd nd 2 shell. However, the 2 shell can hold up to 8 electrons and wants it complete. o To complete the 8 electrons: carbon will share its 4 electrons with other atoms. Each pair of shared electrons constitutes a covalent bond (usually single or double bonds). o When a carbon atom forms 4 single covalent bonds the arrangement of its 4 hybrid orbitals causes the bond to angle toward the corners of an imaginary tetrahedron. o Carbon’s most frequent bonding partners: hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. ▯ They are the 4 major atomic components of organic molecules. • Molecular diversity arising from variation in carbon skeletons: o carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. The skeletons vary in length and may be straight, branched or arranged in closed rings. o Hydrocarbons: organic molecules consisting only carbon and hydrogen atoms. (undergo reactions that release a relatively large number of energy.) o Isomers: compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures and properites. ▯ 3 types: ▯ Structural isomers: differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms • Ex: C 5 12 – 3 forms; C 8 18– 18 forms; C 20 42 – 366319 forms ▯ Cis-trans isomers: (aka: geometric isomers) carbons share covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these differ in their spatial arrangement due to the inflexibility of double bonds. ▯ Enantiomers: are isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon, one that is attached to 4 different atoms or group atoms. 4.3: A few chemical groups are key to molecular function • The chemical groups are the most important in the processes of life. o Chemical groups attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules participate in chemical reactions (Functional groups) or contribute to function by affecting molecular shape. o 7 chemical groups
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