Psych 110 Chapter 1 Notes
Psych 110 Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 110 - 010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carissa Hatcher on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 010 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Nicole Kerr-German in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking -Intro to Psych. What is Psychology? -The study of the mind, brain, and behavior. Science and Psychology Science VS. Popular Psychology -Common Vs. Uncommon Sense -Cannot always trust our common sense -Psychology as a Science -Just like other sciences (chemistry, biology, physics, etc.), science begins on the basis that knowledge should be obtained through observation. Observation is only a starting point of obtaining psychological knowledge. -Biases that disrupt scientific thinking Scientific Thinking -6 Basic Principles 1. ruling out rival hypotheses 2. correlation vs. causation 3. falsifiability 4. replicability 5. extraordinary claims 6. occam’s razor -Helps us see warning signs of Pseudoscience What Makes it Science? Multiple levels of analysis Scientific Method Complications in the Scientific Method Combating naïve realism -cannot always trust our perceptions Naïve Realism The belief that we see the world exactly as it is We make assumptions about the world based on theoretical explanations using the scientific method Assume “seeing is believing” and trust our perceptions What is a Scientific Theory? Theory Explains Predicts Observations Modifies theory Generates new theory Theory: True/False …is supported by extensive research and sharing similar hypotheses that target the same problem or idea. -True …can be tested. -True …is NEVER modified, it is proven. -False …can be supported and unsupported. -True Are we Bias? -Yes. We know from studying humans that we make errors. -Confirmation bias -tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny or dismiss any evidence that may contradict them. -results in psychological tunnel vision -Belief preference -tendency to stick to initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them -“don’t confuse me with facts” effect because people are reluctant to admit they’re wrong Can we test it all? -No. Metaphysical claims -assertion about the world that is not testable -typically includes assertions about the existence of God, the soul, and afterlife. The 6 Scientific Principles 1. Extraordinary claims -ask yourself: Is the evidence as strong as the claim? -this claim requires more rigorous evidence to support the claim -Example: Reading about Bigfoot or aliens without any strong supporting evidence by researchers 2. Replicability -ask yourself: can the results be duplicated in other studies? -we would be skeptic if no other scientific research reported the same findings 3. Ruling out rival hypotheses -ask yourself: have important alternative explanations for the findings been excluded? -more than not, only one finding is reported -cannot just assume it’s correct -were other explanations ruled out? 4. Occam’s razor -ask yourself: does a simpler explanation support the evidence just as well? -parsimony: simpler is better 5. Falsifiability -ask yourself: can the claim be disproved? -possible to find evidence that would prove this statement false? -Example: Rabbits don’t exist. -Here’s a rabbit. (Falsifiable) Example: Rabbits exist. -I’ve examined every creature and none were a rabbit. (NOT falsifiable, statement is true) 6. Correlation vs. Causation -ask yourself: can we be sure that A causes B? Common errors in thinking about psychology -Rely on common sense anecdote -intuition often wrong -confirmation bias -belief perseverance -Forget that behavior is multiply determined and reciprocally interactive -Forget about culture -Individualism Vs. Collectivism - Cross-cuturally: Individualism Collectivism - Culture on the individual: Individualism: Collectivism: Friends Family Family Friends Me Me Warning signs of Pseudoscience Exaggerated claims Overreliance on anecdotes -don’t tell us anything about cause and effect -don’t tell us how representative the cases are -difficult to verify Lack of peer review Lack of self-correction -may be belief perseverance? Psychobabble -uses technical terms that actually have no meaning just to lure in consumers Talk of “proof” instead of evidence Antidote to Pseudoscientific thinking - Be aware… -Emotional reasoning fallacy -error of using emotions to evaluate validity of a claim -Bandwagon fallacy -error of assuming a claim is correct because a lot of people believe it. -Not me fallacy -error of believing that we’re immune from errors in thinking that afflict others Psychology: Past and Present The heart -feelings are “heart centric” while logic is mind centric….have historical roots? -Yes, Egyptians believed that the heart was the equivalent of brain today Rene Descartes 1649: wrote about the mind-body problem (now called Mind-Body Dualism: the mind and body are separate) Hypnosis Anton Mesmer- 1700s Ancient roots Not same hypnosis we are familiar with today Some psychologists truly believe in its effectiveness and use it in therapy today Phrenology -meaning “mind” and “knowledge” A pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull Based on concept that the brain is the organ of the mind and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions Introspection Examination or observation of one’s own mental and emotional processes Important people and dates William James: Father of American psychology, built research lab at Harvard University (1875), wrote Principles of Psychology (1890) William Wundt: first “formal” psych lab in the world (1879) and first journal (1881) Sir Francis Galton: introduces “correlation” so we can discuss relationship regarding variables (1889) APA (American Psychological Association): founded in 1889 Sigmund Freud: Writes “The Interpretation of Dreams” (1900) The Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology Structuralism -Leading Figures: E.B. Titchener -Scientific Goal: uses introspection to identify basic elements or “structures” of experience -Lasting Influence: emphasis on the importance of systematic observation to the study of conscious experiments Functionalism -Leading Figures: William James, influenced by Charles Darwin -Scientific Goal: to understand the functions or adaptive purposes of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Why we function the way we do) -influenced by ideas of Natural Selection -Lasting Influence: absorbed into psychology, still influences in numerous ways Behaviorism: -Leading Figures: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner -Scientific Goal: to uncover the general principles of learning that explains behaviors -focus is largely on observable behaviorism -Lasting Influences: human and animal learning models, among the first to focus on the need for objective research Cognitivist -Leading Figures: Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser -Scientific Goal: to examine the role of mental processes on behavior -Lasting Influences: research areas- language, problem solving, concept formation, intelligence, memory, and psychotherapy Psychoanalysis -Leading Figures: Sigmund Freud -Scientific Goal: uncover the role of unconscious psychological processes and early life experience in behavior - where “sitting on a couch talking about your feelings” comes from -Lasting Influence: understanding that much of our mental processes goes on outside of conscious awareness Types of Psychologists -clinical Perform assessment, diagnosis, treatment of mental disorders Conduct research on people with mental disorders -counseling Work with people experiencing temporary or relatively self-contained life problems (marital conflict, work, relationships) -developmental Study how and why people change over time -school Work with teachers, children, and parents to treat students’ behavioral, emotional, and learning difficulties -experimental Use research methods to study memory, language, thinking and social behaviors of humans -biological Examine the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans -forensic Assess and diagnose inmates and assist with their rehabilitation and treatment -industrial-organizational Assist with selecting productive employees, evaluate performance, examine effects on work environment Nature Vs. Nurture debate - Is it your genes or your experiences? -both, reciprocal and multifaceted Free Will-Determination Debate To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside of our control? Automatically generated behaviors? -some psychologists argue most of perhaps all of our behaviors are generated automatically Those like Skinner suggested we aren’t consciously aware of all of the influences that impact us
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