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Psych 110 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Carissa Hatcher

Psych 110 Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 110 - 010

Carissa Hatcher
GPA 3.31
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Hello, these are my detailed notes over Chapter 1. I hope you find these useful in helping you prepare for coursework and exams.
General Psychology -
Anastasia Nicole Kerr-German
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carissa Hatcher on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 010 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Nicole Kerr-German in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking -Intro to Psych.  What is Psychology? -The study of the mind, brain, and behavior.  Science and Psychology  Science VS. Popular Psychology -Common Vs. Uncommon Sense -Cannot always trust our common sense -Psychology as a Science -Just like other sciences (chemistry, biology, physics, etc.), science begins on the basis that knowledge should be obtained through observation. Observation is only a starting point of obtaining psychological knowledge. -Biases that disrupt scientific thinking  Scientific Thinking -6 Basic Principles 1. ruling out rival hypotheses 2. correlation vs. causation 3. falsifiability 4. replicability 5. extraordinary claims 6. occam’s razor -Helps us see warning signs of Pseudoscience  What Makes it Science?  Multiple levels of analysis  Scientific Method  Complications in the Scientific Method  Combating naïve realism -cannot always trust our perceptions  Naïve Realism  The belief that we see the world exactly as it is  We make assumptions about the world based on theoretical explanations using the scientific method  Assume “seeing is believing” and trust our perceptions  What is a Scientific Theory? Theory Explains Predicts Observations Modifies theory Generates new theory  Theory: True/False  …is supported by extensive research and sharing similar hypotheses that target the same problem or idea. -True  …can be tested. -True  …is NEVER modified, it is proven. -False  …can be supported and unsupported. -True  Are we Bias? -Yes.  We know from studying humans that we make errors. -Confirmation bias -tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny or dismiss any evidence that may contradict them. -results in psychological tunnel vision -Belief preference -tendency to stick to initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them -“don’t confuse me with facts” effect because people are reluctant to admit they’re wrong  Can we test it all? -No.  Metaphysical claims -assertion about the world that is not testable -typically includes assertions about the existence of God, the soul, and afterlife.  The 6 Scientific Principles 1. Extraordinary claims -ask yourself: Is the evidence as strong as the claim? -this claim requires more rigorous evidence to support the claim -Example: Reading about Bigfoot or aliens without any strong supporting evidence by researchers 2. Replicability -ask yourself: can the results be duplicated in other studies? -we would be skeptic if no other scientific research reported the same findings 3. Ruling out rival hypotheses -ask yourself: have important alternative explanations for the findings been excluded? -more than not, only one finding is reported -cannot just assume it’s correct -were other explanations ruled out? 4. Occam’s razor -ask yourself: does a simpler explanation support the evidence just as well? -parsimony: simpler is better 5. Falsifiability -ask yourself: can the claim be disproved? -possible to find evidence that would prove this statement false? -Example: Rabbits don’t exist. -Here’s a rabbit. (Falsifiable) Example: Rabbits exist. -I’ve examined every creature and none were a rabbit. (NOT falsifiable, statement is true) 6. Correlation vs. Causation -ask yourself: can we be sure that A causes B?  Common errors in thinking about psychology -Rely on common sense anecdote -intuition often wrong -confirmation bias -belief perseverance -Forget that behavior is multiply determined and reciprocally interactive -Forget about culture -Individualism Vs. Collectivism - Cross-cuturally: Individualism Collectivism - Culture on the individual: Individualism: Collectivism: Friends Family Family Friends Me Me  Warning signs of Pseudoscience  Exaggerated claims  Overreliance on anecdotes -don’t tell us anything about cause and effect -don’t tell us how representative the cases are -difficult to verify  Lack of peer review  Lack of self-correction -may be belief perseverance?  Psychobabble -uses technical terms that actually have no meaning just to lure in consumers  Talk of “proof” instead of evidence  Antidote to Pseudoscientific thinking - Be aware… -Emotional reasoning fallacy -error of using emotions to evaluate validity of a claim -Bandwagon fallacy -error of assuming a claim is correct because a lot of people believe it. -Not me fallacy -error of believing that we’re immune from errors in thinking that afflict others  Psychology: Past and Present  The heart -feelings are “heart centric” while logic is mind centric….have historical roots? -Yes, Egyptians believed that the heart was the equivalent of brain today  Rene Descartes  1649: wrote about the mind-body problem (now called Mind-Body Dualism: the mind and body are separate)  Hypnosis  Anton Mesmer- 1700s  Ancient roots  Not same hypnosis we are familiar with today  Some psychologists truly believe in its effectiveness and use it in therapy today  Phrenology -meaning “mind” and “knowledge”  A pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull  Based on concept that the brain is the organ of the mind and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions  Introspection  Examination or observation of one’s own mental and emotional processes  Important people and dates  William James: Father of American psychology, built research lab at Harvard University (1875), wrote Principles of Psychology (1890)  William Wundt: first “formal” psych lab in the world (1879) and first journal (1881)  Sir Francis Galton: introduces “correlation” so we can discuss relationship regarding variables (1889)  APA (American Psychological Association): founded in 1889  Sigmund Freud: Writes “The Interpretation of Dreams” (1900)  The Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology  Structuralism -Leading Figures: E.B. Titchener -Scientific Goal: uses introspection to identify basic elements or “structures” of experience -Lasting Influence: emphasis on the importance of systematic observation to the study of conscious experiments  Functionalism -Leading Figures: William James, influenced by Charles Darwin -Scientific Goal: to understand the functions or adaptive purposes of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Why we function the way we do) -influenced by ideas of Natural Selection -Lasting Influence: absorbed into psychology, still influences in numerous ways  Behaviorism: -Leading Figures: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner -Scientific Goal: to uncover the general principles of learning that explains behaviors -focus is largely on observable behaviorism -Lasting Influences: human and animal learning models, among the first to focus on the need for objective research  Cognitivist -Leading Figures: Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser -Scientific Goal: to examine the role of mental processes on behavior -Lasting Influences: research areas- language, problem solving, concept formation, intelligence, memory, and psychotherapy  Psychoanalysis -Leading Figures: Sigmund Freud -Scientific Goal: uncover the role of unconscious psychological processes and early life experience in behavior - where “sitting on a couch talking about your feelings” comes from -Lasting Influence: understanding that much of our mental processes goes on outside of conscious awareness  Types of Psychologists -clinical  Perform assessment, diagnosis, treatment of mental disorders  Conduct research on people with mental disorders -counseling  Work with people experiencing temporary or relatively self-contained life problems (marital conflict, work, relationships) -developmental  Study how and why people change over time -school  Work with teachers, children, and parents to treat students’ behavioral, emotional, and learning difficulties -experimental  Use research methods to study memory, language, thinking and social behaviors of humans -biological  Examine the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans -forensic  Assess and diagnose inmates and assist with their rehabilitation and treatment -industrial-organizational  Assist with selecting productive employees, evaluate performance, examine effects on work environment  Nature Vs. Nurture debate - Is it your genes or your experiences? -both, reciprocal and multifaceted  Free Will-Determination Debate  To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside of our control?  Automatically generated behaviors? -some psychologists argue most of perhaps all of our behaviors are generated automatically  Those like Skinner suggested we aren’t consciously aware of all of the influences that impact us


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