IPC Chapter 4 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Cincinnati taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Intro to IPC Buckel Professor Huang Chapter 4- Perceiving Others The Perception Process Reality is constructed o First-order Reality- physically observable qualities of a thing or situation o Second-order Reality- our attaching meaning (opinions) to first-order things Ex) grandmother hugging her grandson Observed the action Perceived as appropriate o Communication problems arise when we don’t share second-order realities Steps in Perception Process (PP) Selection- “a phase of the perception process in which a communicator attends to a stimulus from the environment” (textbook glossary) o Intense or repetitious stimuli o Contrast or change in stimulation Organization- “the stage in the perception process that involves arranging data in a meaningful way” (glossary) o 4 types of schema to classify others (pg 111): Physical constructs- classify people according to their appearance Ex) beautiful/plain, heavy/thin, young/old Role constructs- use social position Ex) student, attorney, spouse, etc. Interaction constructs- focus on on social behavior Ex) friendly, helpful, aloof, sarcastic Psychological constructs- refers to internal states of mind and dispositions Ex) confident, insecure, happy, neurotic Punctuation- determination of causes & effects (see diagram on pg 111) Interpretation- the process of attaching meaning to sense data o Relational satisfaction, expectation, experience, assumptions Negotiation- the fourth stage of the perception process in which communicators influence each other’s perception through interaction Influences of Perception Access to information o We only make sense of what we know, and none of us know everything o We often gain access to new information about others when their roles overlap o Social media can provide new information Physiological, psychological influence, social influences, and cultural influences Physiological Influences Senses- what you see, hear, taste, touch, and smell Age- people of different ages view the world differently Health and Fatigue- having a cold or a flu can change how you communicate to others Biological Cycles- morning person vs night owl, body temp, sex drive, alertness, and tolerance to stress/pain affect communication Neurobehavioral challenges- ADHD, ADD, etc. Psychological Influences Mood- although there is a strong relationship between mood and happiness, it is not clear which comes first o Ex) happiness, anxiety, critical mood, etc. Self-concept- “the relatively stable set of perceptions each individual holds of herself or himself” (glossary) Social Influences Sex and Gender Roles- male/female/boy/girl expectations in society o Sex = physically male/female Gender = how you relate as male/female Occupational Roles- zoologists view the world differently than botanists, etc. Relational Roles- roles you play in relation to others o Ex) mother/daughter, father/son, etc. Cultural Influences- some societies view being talkative(for example) as either valued or discouraged Common Tendencies in Perception We make snap judgements- they can be right or wrong, or problematic when based on stereotyping We cling to first impressions We judge ourselves more charitably/harshly than we do others- self-serving bias- when we perform poorly, we usually blame external forces (pg 126) We are influenced by our expectations We are influenced by the obvious- the most obvious factor may not be the only cause We assume others are like us Synchronizing our perceptions Perception Checking- A three-part method for verifying the accuracy of interpretations o A description of the behavior you noticed o Two possible interpretations of the behavior o A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior Building Empathy o Empathy- the ability to recreate another person’s perspective, to experience the world from his or her point of view the value of empathy- increased self-esteem, comforting o Emotion Contagion- process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another o You should have a genuine concern for the welfare of the other o Ethics- golden rule of treating others as we want to be treated o Requirements- open-minded, imagination, commitment
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