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Dr. Greene Week 3 Notes

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Greene Week 3 Notes NTRI 2000-002

Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

chapter 3
Nutrition and Health
Michael Winand Greene
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Rachel  Ferrell     NTRI  2000   1/29/16-­‐  2/3/16     Chapter  3  cont.:     Digestive  System:   • Gastrointestinal  tract   o tube→mouth  to  anus   o digestion  and  absorption  of  nutrients   • Accessory  Organs   o Salivary  glands,  liver,  gallbladder,  pancreas   • Mouth   • Esophagus   o Muscular  tube  connecting  throat  to  stomach   o Peristalsis=  muscular  movement  that  moves  food  down   o Esophageal  sphincter=  regulates  food  movement  from  esophagus  to  stomach   § when  it  relaxes→food  goes  down   § also  prevents  backflow   • Stomach   o Large  sac  for  holding  food   o Contains  gastric  juice  (water,  HCl  acid,  enzymes,  and  intrinsic  factor)   o Stomach  churns  gastric  juice  into  chyme   o Pyloric  Sphincter=controls  rate  of  chyme  that  enter  the  small  intestine   o What  keeps  stomach  from  digesting  itself?   § Mucus  layer→protects  from  acid   § HCl  and  enzymes→only  released  when  eating   • Small  Intestine   o Site  of  most  absorption  and  digestion     o Intestinal  hormones  released   § Secretin=  releases  bicarbonate  (neutralizes  HCl)  from  pancreas   § Choleystokinin  (CCK)   • Releases  enzymes  from  pancreas   • Regulates  release  of  bile  from  gallbladder   • Bile  made  in  the  liver,  stored  in  the  gallbladder   o Folds  called  microvilli  make  absorption  efficient   o Water  soluble  compounds→absorbed  in  capillaries  leading  to  portal  vein   o Fat  soluble  compounds→absorbed  into  lymph   o Undigested  food→large  intestine   § Via  illeocecal  sphincter   • Large  Intestine   o Only  some  nutrients  reach  large  intestine  (few  do)   o No  villi/enzymes  (surface  area  is  less)   o Some  absorption  of  water,  vitamins,  fatty  acids,  minerals,  sodium/potassium   o Lots  of  bacteria  (over  500  species)   o As  water  is  absorbed→becomes  a  semisolid   o Becomes  feces  (made  of  water,  fiber,  tough  connective  tissues,  bacteria,  dead  intestinal   cells,  and  body  waste)   o Contractions  occur  as  mass  movement   o Rectum  fills→leaves  via  anus  controlled  by  anal  sphincters   • Nutrient  Absorption  in  Digestive  System   o Passive  absorption(diffusion)=  high  concentration→low  concentration   o Facilitated  Absorption  (transport)=  carrier  or  receptor  dependent   o Active  Absorption  (transport)=carrier/receptor/energy  dependent   o Phagocytosis/Pinocytosis=  form  of  active  transport;  nonspecific   • Accessory  Organs  in  Digestion   o Gallbladder   § Organ  attached  to  underside  of  liver,  stores  bile  and  secretes  it   § Bile=essential  for  digestion  and  absorption  of  fat;  released  through  a  common  bile   duct  into  the  first  segment  of  the  small  intestine   § Enterohepatic  circulation=continual  recycling  of  compounds  like  bile  and  acids   between  small  intestine  and  liver   o Liver   § Releases  a  number  of  unwanted  substances  (toxins)  that  travel  with  bile  into  the   gallbladder   § End  up  in  small  intestine,  and  eventually  large  intestine  for  secretion   o Pancreas   § Has  both  endocrine  and  digestive  functions   § Makes  hormones→insulin  and  glucagon   § Produces  pancreatic  juice=  mixture  of  water,  bicarbonate,  and  a  variety  of   digestive  enzymes   Urinary  System:   • Components:  kidney,  ureter,  bladder,  urethra   • Kidneys=  produce  urine  (modified  ultrafiltrate  of  blood)   o Nephron=  functional  unit  of  kidney   o Function:  filtration,  reabsorption,  and  secretion   § Also  helps  in  Vitamin  D  formation   § Produces  hormone  erythropoietin  (produces  red  blood  cells)   § Regulates  blood  pressure   Digestive  Diseases:   • Ulcers  →  bacteria  infects  the  stomach   • Gastroesophageal  Reflux  Disease   o Heartburn   o Half  of  Americans  experience  it   o Also  known  as  acid  reflux   o Can  damage  lining  of  esophagus   • Constipation   o Difficult  or  infrequent  evacuation  of  bowels   o Treatment   § Increased  fiber  (stimulates  peristalsis)   § Drink  fluids   § Relaxation/regular  exercise     § Probiotics  or  laxatives   • Irritable  Bowel  Syndrome   o Effects  25  million  Americans   o Symptoms:  cramps,  gas,  bloating,  constipation,  visible  abdomen  distention   o Hard  to  pinpoint  exact  causes     § Could  be  intestinal  peristalsis  issues   o Treatment   § Alter  diet   • Celiac  Disease/Gluten  Sensitivity   o Chronic  immune  mediated  disease  from  exposure  to  gluten   o Genetically  predisposed   o gluten→found  in  grains,  wheat,  rye,  barley   o effects  1%  of  U.S.  population   o flattens  the  villi→limits  nutrient  absorption   o treatment:     § should  get  blood  tested  for  gluten  antibodies   § don’t  eat  gluten   Central  Dogma  of  Biology:   • DNA→RNA→Proteins   • emerging  field  of  genomics  in  nutrition→Nutritional  Genomics   o Interactions  between  nutrients  and  genetics   o Impacts  nutrient  requirements   o Responsiveness  to  dietary  modifications   o Impact  of  food  on  gene  expression   o Our  susceptibility  to  nutritionally  related  diseases    


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