Dr. Greene Week 3 Notes
Dr. Greene Week 3 Notes NTRI 2000-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 1/29/16-‐ 2/3/16 Chapter 3 cont.: Digestive System: • Gastrointestinal tract o tube→mouth to anus o digestion and absorption of nutrients • Accessory Organs o Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas • Mouth • Esophagus o Muscular tube connecting throat to stomach o Peristalsis= muscular movement that moves food down o Esophageal sphincter= regulates food movement from esophagus to stomach § when it relaxes→food goes down § also prevents backflow • Stomach o Large sac for holding food o Contains gastric juice (water, HCl acid, enzymes, and intrinsic factor) o Stomach churns gastric juice into chyme o Pyloric Sphincter=controls rate of chyme that enter the small intestine o What keeps stomach from digesting itself? § Mucus layer→protects from acid § HCl and enzymes→only released when eating • Small Intestine o Site of most absorption and digestion o Intestinal hormones released § Secretin= releases bicarbonate (neutralizes HCl) from pancreas § Choleystokinin (CCK) • Releases enzymes from pancreas • Regulates release of bile from gallbladder • Bile made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder o Folds called microvilli make absorption efficient o Water soluble compounds→absorbed in capillaries leading to portal vein o Fat soluble compounds→absorbed into lymph o Undigested food→large intestine § Via illeocecal sphincter • Large Intestine o Only some nutrients reach large intestine (few do) o No villi/enzymes (surface area is less) o Some absorption of water, vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, sodium/potassium o Lots of bacteria (over 500 species) o As water is absorbed→becomes a semisolid o Becomes feces (made of water, fiber, tough connective tissues, bacteria, dead intestinal cells, and body waste) o Contractions occur as mass movement o Rectum fills→leaves via anus controlled by anal sphincters • Nutrient Absorption in Digestive System o Passive absorption(diffusion)= high concentration→low concentration o Facilitated Absorption (transport)= carrier or receptor dependent o Active Absorption (transport)=carrier/receptor/energy dependent o Phagocytosis/Pinocytosis= form of active transport; nonspecific • Accessory Organs in Digestion o Gallbladder § Organ attached to underside of liver, stores bile and secretes it § Bile=essential for digestion and absorption of fat; released through a common bile duct into the first segment of the small intestine § Enterohepatic circulation=continual recycling of compounds like bile and acids between small intestine and liver o Liver § Releases a number of unwanted substances (toxins) that travel with bile into the gallbladder § End up in small intestine, and eventually large intestine for secretion o Pancreas § Has both endocrine and digestive functions § Makes hormones→insulin and glucagon § Produces pancreatic juice= mixture of water, bicarbonate, and a variety of digestive enzymes Urinary System: • Components: kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra • Kidneys= produce urine (modified ultrafiltrate of blood) o Nephron= functional unit of kidney o Function: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion § Also helps in Vitamin D formation § Produces hormone erythropoietin (produces red blood cells) § Regulates blood pressure Digestive Diseases: • Ulcers → bacteria infects the stomach • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease o Heartburn o Half of Americans experience it o Also known as acid reflux o Can damage lining of esophagus • Constipation o Difficult or infrequent evacuation of bowels o Treatment § Increased fiber (stimulates peristalsis) § Drink fluids § Relaxation/regular exercise § Probiotics or laxatives • Irritable Bowel Syndrome o Effects 25 million Americans o Symptoms: cramps, gas, bloating, constipation, visible abdomen distention o Hard to pinpoint exact causes § Could be intestinal peristalsis issues o Treatment § Alter diet • Celiac Disease/Gluten Sensitivity o Chronic immune mediated disease from exposure to gluten o Genetically predisposed o gluten→found in grains, wheat, rye, barley o effects 1% of U.S. population o flattens the villi→limits nutrient absorption o treatment: § should get blood tested for gluten antibodies § don’t eat gluten Central Dogma of Biology: • DNA→RNA→Proteins • emerging field of genomics in nutrition→Nutritional Genomics o Interactions between nutrients and genetics o Impacts nutrient requirements o Responsiveness to dietary modifications o Impact of food on gene expression o Our susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases
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