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Exceptional Child Chapter 1 notes

by: knaas94

Exceptional Child Chapter 1 notes EX 390

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About this Document

These are detailed notes from chapter one of the textbook. There is a lot more information than what was given in class.
Psychology and Education of the Exceptional Child
Dr. Melissa A. Graham
Class Notes
Exceptional Child, Psychology, Education




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by knaas94 on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EX 390 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. Melissa A. Graham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Psychology and Education of the Exceptional Child in Psychlogy at Southeast Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 1 notes Special Education  Specially designed instruction at no cost to parents to meet the unique needs of a child  with a disability o Instruction in the classroom, at home, in hospitals and institutions, and other  settings o Instruction in physical education  The means through which children who have disabilities receive an education specifically designed to help them reach their learning potential Related Services  Transportation, and such developmental, corrective, and other support services which  may include speech/language pathology, audiology services, interpreting services, psych  services, physical and occupational therapy, social services, school nurse services,  counseling, and medical services as may be required to assist a child with a disability to  benefit from special education o Includes early identification and assessment of disabling conditions in children  o Doesn’t include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement  of the device  These supports aren’t directly related to the student’s instruction but are needed for the  student to access instruction  Team of professionals decide which related services are needed by each student with a  disability Supplementary Aids and Services All the items that can help a student remain in a classroom with typical peers o Access to a computer with software that predicts what the student is likely to type  next o Preferential seating in the classroom such as near the teacher or board for a  student with low vision or hearing loss Important Court Cases  Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas clarified that separate can’t be equal  which led some professionals to question whether separate classes gave students with  disabilities an appropriate education  Efficacy studies conducted from mid 50s to 60s compared achievement and social  adjustment of students with intellectual disabilities who were in special classes to  students of similar abilities who remained in gen ed settings. o Showed students in gen ed classes achieved more academically than those in  special classes because they were learning the same curriculum as the other  students while those in special classes focused on developing manual or job­ related skills  Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania  1972, parents won the guarantee that education didn’t mean only traditional academic  instruction and that children with intellectual disabilities could benefit from education  tailored to their needs  Also in 1972, in Mills v. Board of Education, the court ordered the district to educate all  students including those with disabilities and clarified that specific procedures had to be  followed to determine whether a student should receive special services and to resolve  disagreements between parents and school personnel.  In Diana v. State Board of Education of California in 1970, the public school system was  ordered to test Spanish­speaking children in their native language  In Larry P. v. Riles, 1972, the court ruled that schools had to ensure that tests  administered to students didn’t discriminate based on race. Early Laws  Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 provided funding to states to assist  them in creating and improving programs and services for students  Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974 increased federal special education  funding and charged states with the task of creating full educational opportunities for  students with disabilities.  o Amended for the first time in 1975, and that set of amendments is considered  basis for all subsequent special education practice Refinements to the Law  In 1986, special education was expanded to include services to infants and young  children  In 1990, the law was renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which is the  current name o Clarified need for supports for students as they transition from high school to  postschool education or vocational options.  In 1997, several additions were made when the law was reauthorized including  procedures for addressing discipline for students with disabilities, parent participation  expanded, and roles of gen ed teachers in educating students with disabilities were  clarified  Most recent reauthorization in 2004 added provisions to ensure that IDEA is consistent  with other federal government education laws and additional strategies were specified to  resolve disputes with parents Other Laws Affecting Students with Disabilities  Zero Reject entitles all students with disabilities to a public education regardless of the  nature or severity of their disabilities. o Each state has a child find system, procedures alerting the public that services are  available for students with disabilities and for distributing print and electronic  materials, conducting screening, and completing other activities to ensure that  students are identified o Also ensures that students with communicable diseases, such as AIDS can’t be  excluded from schools  o Guides school policies related to students with disabilities who commit serious  offenses that might lead to long­term suspension or expulsion  Free Appropriate Public Education: parents and family members can’t be asked to pay for special education services o If a student needs to be educated outside of the school district, the district usually  pays for that placement, including transportation costs o Student’s education must incorporate special education through specially  designed instruction, related services, and supplementary aids and services  Least Restrictive Environment: students must be educated in the setting most like that of  their peers in which they can succeed when provided with the needed supports and  services o Spells out additional settings in which students may be educated including gen ed  with instruction in a special education setting for a small part of the day, a  separate special ed classroom most of the day, a separate school, etc.  Nondiscriminatory Evaluation: any assessment completed as part of a special education  decision­making process is unbiased o Administered in child’s native language o Appropriate for child’s age and characteristics o More than one test is used to assess the presence of disability o Knowledgeable professional administers and interprets results o Assessments occur in all areas of suspected disability  Parent and Family Rights to Confidentiality: info regarding a student’s disability is highly confidential and info may only be shared with individuals who are working directly with  the student o Log must be kept of anyone who accesses student records o Parents have the right to request to see and obtain copies of all records kept  regarding their child with a disability and to dispute info that they perceive is not  accurate  Procedural Safeguards: any decisions concerning a student with disabilities are made  with parent input and in compliance with all aspects of the law o Parents must give written consent for their children to be tested o Parents must be invited to any meetings regarding their child and must give  permission for the child to receive special education o When parents and school personnel disagree, specific steps must be followed to  resolve the dispute Other Legislation Related to Special Ed  Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 ensures that no handicapped person will be  excluded or discriminated against under any program or activity that receives or benefits  from federal financial assistance o Broadly defines disabilities as impairments that limit one or more major life  activities such as walking, seeing, hearing, and learning o Protects all people with disabilities, not just children o Protects some students who are not eligible for services outlined in IDEA such as  diabetics  o Any services or supports provided to students through this law must be paid for  by the district  Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: protects the rights of all people with disabilities, no matter their age o Applies to both public and private sectors, including libraries, governments,  restaurants, hotels, theaters, transportation systems, and stores o Directly addresses communication and requires closed captioning be provided to  accommodate those who are deaf or hard of hearing o Ensures buildings have ramps and elevators, buses and trains can accommodate  wheelchairs, and employers may not refuse to hire a new employee because of  their disability Students Who Receive Special Ed  13 categories of disabilities that are eligible for special ed services o Specific learning disabilities, speech/language impairments, intellectual  disabilities, emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities, hearing impairments,  orthopedic or physical impairments, other health impairments, visual  impairments, autism, deaf/blindness, traumatic brain injury, and developmental  delays Special Ed for Young Children  For children birth to age 2, special ed is not always required by law o All states now provide services to these infants and toddlers  For children ages 3 to 5, special ed services have been mandated in IDEA since 1986  Some young children who are identified as eligible to receive services have significant  special needs that were identified at a very early age, including physical and sensory  disabilities, intellectual disabilities, or autism o Many have milder needs related to language development or motor skills  May be labeled as developmentally delayed, which is a category for children up to 9  years of age Students Not Specifically Included in IDEA  Gifted or talented: even though they have some special needs, IDEA does not provide for  special ed for these students o Some students with disabilities are also gifted or talented and are sometimes  referred to as twice exceptional or having dual exceptionalities and they need a  combination of services  Entitled to special ed, related services, and supplementary aids and  services to address their disabilities, but they also need enrichment and  encouragement to develop their gifts and talents  ADHD: many students with ADHD receive support through the broader provisions of  Section 504 and this assistance is largely the responsibility of gen ed teachers o Some students may receive special ed when their disorder is significant enough  that they are identified as other health impaired.  Students at risk for school failure: may be homeless, abuse drugs or other substances, live in poverty, or any other things that can negatively affect their learning. o Although they have high risk factors, they do not have a disability and do not  qualify for special ed services Inclusive Practices  Encompass students who are gifted and talented, those who are at risk for failure, those  with disabilities, and those who are average learners. Also includes all teachers and staff  members.  Regular Education Initiative: urging gen ed and special ed teachers to work together to  educate all their students  Doesn’t necessarily mean that all students have to be placed in gen ed classrooms,  especially if their disability is severe  Universal Design for Learning: teachers should design instruction from the beginning to  meet a wide range of learner diversity rather than try to retrofit or make adjustments after  they have already created their lessons  Differentiated Instruction: changes can be made in many different aspects of the  teaching/learning process to enable diverse student learning needs to be met  Evidence­Based Practices: must make decisions about what to teach and determine how  effective that process has been based on data that they gather. Must also teach using  programs, interventions, strategies, and activities that have been demonstrated through  research to be effective  Assistive Technology: devices, equipment, and services that improve the learning and  functional capabilities of students with disabilities   Positive Behavior Supports: establish schoolwide and classroom standards for behavior  so that students understand expectations Parent Participation in Special Ed  Barriers to participation can include time, language barriers, lack of transportation,  unfamiliar with customs or uncomfortable with them, find teachers and administrators  insensitive to their needs.  Encourage parent participation by: using family centered practices, respecting the unique  characteristics of each family, recognizing that families have understandings of their  children’s special needs that may differ from yours, and matching your strategies and  resources to family preferences Trends and Issues Influencing Special Ed  Disproportionate Representation: African American and American Indian/Alaska Native  students are overrepresented while Asian or Hispanic students are underrepresented. o Some believe this is due to unintentional racial and ethnic bias and others believe  it is due to other factors such as poverty that may be correlated to race  Prevention Through Response to Intervention: when a teacher raises concern about a  student’s rate of learning, a data­based system of increasingly intensive interventions is  put in place and carefully tracked to see if it might be possible to accelerate the student’s  learning in order to avoid the need for special education o Option for determining whether a student has a learning disability and is also  being used to address serious student behavior issues and to provide effective  remedial education services to at­risk learners o Tiered interventions or multitiered system of support may be used  Rigor and Accountability: helps to ensure that students with disabilities are making  progress in reaching their educational goals and reaching curriculum standards and if they are not, it serves as a mechanism for alerting professionals and parents of the need to  make changes.  Collaboration: the way in which professionals interact with each other and with parents  or family members as they work together to educate students with disabilities


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