Early Childhood Chapter 5
Early Childhood Chapter 5 psyc3250
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc3250 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Jung in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see psychology of early childhood in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Psychology of Early Childhood 01162016 Chapter 5 supporting Early childhood education 0 Children through time 0 Greek Plato and Aristotle Sensitive to children s needs and the importance of appropriate education in shaping their character l enlightenment 0 Middle Ages Children were seen as property and labor force Little formal education for children 0 Education in the 16th century began to been seen as an equalizing force 0 18th century industrialization exploitation of children Halted educational gains Led to reforms new child labor laws 0 20th century formation for early childhood education Education for all children Education seen as training for democracy Scienti c study of childhood Early childhood was seen as an avenue for social reform Increase need for early childhood care In uential people in Early childhood education 0 Rousseau 17171778 People are born good corrupted by society Children should be in close contact with nature Learn through trail and error experimentation Noted the importance of teaching at developmentally appropriate level child centered education 0 Johann Pestalozzi 17461827 In uence by Rousseau All people had right to education Learning tied to concrete experiences and observations Stressed important role of mother Unlike Rousseau worked with children Stressed individual differences Activities produce greater learning than rote memorization o Fredrich Froebel 17821852 Admired Pestalozzi Believed nature and education with interlocked Believed different ages kids had different ways of learning Saw childhood as a separate and important sphere Stressed the importance of play 0 Maria Montessori 18701952 Children learn in fundamentally different ways Children have huge capacity to learn during rst few years absorbent mind If minds are exposed to appropriate learning experiences at correct time they will grow a Sensitive periods most receptive Made appropriate experiences available during their sensitive periods a Prepared environments Focused on sensory discrimination practical skills and readingwritingsmath through hands on manipulations o In uential theorist 0 Erik Erikson 19021994 Psychosocial theory Each stage of development is de ned by con ict a 1 trust v Mistrust birth 18months Without adequate care especially feeding develops mistrust o Piage El 2 Autonomy v Shame and doubt 18months 3years Parental response to toilet training 3 Initiative v Guilt 35 years Need to allow to explore but WITH guidelines 4 Industry v Inferiority 6puberty Time space and support to plan and complete projects t 1896 1980 Cognitive development stage theory New information is added l disequilibrium adaptation equilibrium Adaptation Accommodation qualitative Assimilation quantitative Schema way of organizing mental representations Important for educators to understand stages for Development appropriate practices El El El El 0 Skinner 19041990 0 Vygot Behaviorist Learn through experience Operant conditioning Reinforcer increase behavior Punishments decrease behaviors Extinctions removal of conditioned behavior sky 1896 1934 Sociocultural Develop through social interaction Scaffolding Zone of proximal development task children can do with support of more knowledgeable other ZPD individualized 0 Application 0 Montessori now for more af uent children even though originally meant for poorer children Environment materials are accessible to children and are child sized Distinct areas with different task Aesthetically pleasing plants owers furniture Children multiaged engaged in individual activity of their choosing selfdirected Teachers quiet involvement no extrinsic reinforcement Material didactic and selfcorrecting Curriculum daily living sensory and hands on conceptual learning 0 Bank St Developmental interactionist model Interaction between child and environment Open education Individual interest areas with hand made materials Teachers build on children individual experiences Integrative curriculum based on unifying theme 0 Cognitive oriented Clearly de ned areas Plan work recall plan do review a Children plan out their own day and then review their day afterwards Curriculum classi cation number concepts seriation spatial relationships 0 Reggio Emilia Italy Promotes learning and social connection Teachers pair with kids for 3 years and learn with the child Project approach with ideas emerging from students 0 Waldorf Education conceptual morality and spirituality Present topics in experiential ways Comfortable bright homelike environments All material natura no plastic 0 Research Supports for Early Childhood Education 0 O 0 000000 IQ gains higher tests scores better progress through school years Positive attitudes better adjusted better sense of self Parents of these children increase their education and vocational status Decrease in drop out rate teen pregnancies arrests Results continue into 205 Increased emotional understanding More appropriate behaviors Increase cognitive and language development Pk3 importance of continuity between early childhood education and early elementary education
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