Lecture 1 Outline
Lecture 1 Outline Bio 1023
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!1! ! Introduction to Biology: Biology- The study of life •! Biology is an experimental science o! Seek answers to questions that arise from observations of the natural world Organism- “Living thing” Hierarchy- A system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority. •! Biology is studied by classifications •! All life on Earth classified hierarchically •! “organized” in an ordered, directional fashion o! hence the term “organism” •! Within the organism as well as it’s interaction with the environment •! Structure=Function 1.! Atoms- smallest “functional” unit of all chemical substances (molecules). Cannot be broken down. 2.! Molecules and Macromolecules- Two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds. 3.! Organelle- Membrane-bound sub-cellular structure with it’s own unique fashion. 4.! Cell- The simplest unit of an organism. 5.! Tissues- The association of many cells of the same type. 6.! Organs- Two or more types of tissue combined to perform a common function. 7.! Organism- A living thing that maintains an internal order and is separate from the environment. 8.! Species- Group of related organisms sharing a distinct form. 9.! Population- Group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment. 10.!Community- Assemblage of populations of different species living in the same place/time. 11.!Ecosystem- Biotic community of populations and the abiotic environment affecting that community. 12.!Biosphere- All regions on Earth, and in the atmosphere, where organisms exist. Properties of Life (Organisms): Seven common characteristics •! Composed of cells •! Metabolism •! Respond to stimuli •! Growth and development •! Reproduction •! Ability to adapt Composed of Cells- •! Unicellular o! Single cell organisms (algae, protists, etc.) PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!1! ! •! Multicellular- o! Many celled organisms (plants, humans, etc.) Metabolism- All the chemical reactions that occur within an organism which allow it to take in and use energy. •! Organisms produce usable energy from the environment to maintain themselves. o! Light, or food •! Plants use light energy o! Photosynthesis •! Animals use other organisms as energy source o! Ingestion Respond to Environment- Organisms must be able to respond to change in the environment to survive. •! Examples o! The ability of a mammal to respond to cold temperatures by growing additional fur o! The ability of a plant to respond to change in the angle of the sun Growth and Development- Growth- Production of more or larger cells Development- Changes in the state of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism •! Multicellular organisms (plants and humans) start as a single cell (fertilized egg) o! Undergo cell division (growth) •! Specialization of cells into tissue-organ-organism through the process of development •! Organism with a defined set of characteristics Reproduction- The process by which organisms produce new organisms (offspring) •! Organisms have a finite life span •! To sustain life over many generations, organisms must reproduce. •! Transmission of genetic material from parent to offspring •! Offspring have traits like their parents Biological Evolution- The change in the genetic material (DNA) of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. •! Populations of organisms change over the course of many generations •! Evolution results in traits that promote survival and reproductive success •! All species are related by and evolutionary history o! Ex: Seed plants and non seed plants share a common ancestor. Scientific Method: •! What is Science? o! The observation, identification, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of a phenomena o! It’s more of a way of “doing things” than a thing itself PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!1! ! •! Order of Operations: o! Observation- Specific, observation-based question you are trying to answer. o! Hypothesis- Plausible explanation for observation o! Prediction- Outcome you believe will come from experimentation o! Experiment- Gathering of data appropriate to address question o! Results- Organized and detailed mathematical data o! Conclusion- Accept or reject hypothesis !! Null hypothesis not rejected = reject hypothesis !! Null hypothesis rejected = accept hypothesis Hypothesis or Theory: Hypothesis- A proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon •! Based on observation or experimental studies •! Any hypothesis must be accompanied by a null hypothesis Null Hypothesis- Hypothesis of “no difference” or “no change” •! Ex: Decreasing daylight has no effect on whether trees drop their leaves •! Hypotheses must make predictions that can be supported or rejected •! A “useful” hypothesis is a “testable” hypothesis Theory- A broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world •! Substantiated by a large body of evidence •! Allows us to make many predictions •! Also can never be proved •! Due to overwhelming evidence extremely, likely to be true Example: !! Theory: DNA is the genetic material !! Overwhelming body of evidence supports this theory Other Information: •! Biology is and experimental science •! It effects our society •! Seeks to answer questions that arise from observations of the natural world •! Chemistry and Physics Some branches of scientific study in Biology: •! Zoology •! Botany •! Ecology •! Microbiology
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