Lecture 2 Outline
Lecture 2 Outline Bio 1023
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!2! ! Energy and Metabolism: •! Organisms need “energy” to carry out cellular functions •! They get this energy from the environment (light and food) o! Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc. o! Not in a useable state: must be converted •! Metabolism is the process whereby chemical energy found in food is converted to useful biological energy o! ATP (adenosine triphosphate) o! Requires enzymes What is Energy? •! Energy- The ability to promote change or do work •! Comes in many forms o! Light energy o! Thermal energy o! Atomic energy o! Electrical energy o! Mechanical energy o! Chemical energy •! Types of energy o! Kinetic energy- Energy associated with movement o! Potential energy- Energy due to structure or location of substance o! Chemical energy- Potential energy held in molecular bonds Thermodynamics •! First law of thermodynamics (also called the Law of conservation of energy) o! Energy cannot be created or destroyed o! Can be transformed from one type to another o! Ex: Chemical energy into heat energy •! Second law of thermodynamics o! Transfer of transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy o! Entropy (S)- The degree of disorder of a system o! Any transfer of energy ALWAYS results in a loss of energy of heat o! No energy transfer is 100% efficient Primary Energy Transformations: •! Photosynthesis- Converting light energy (from the sun) into chemical bond energy (glucose) •! Cellular Respiration- Converting chemical bond energy in glucose into chemical bond energy in ATP (usable energy) Biochemistry: •! Involves the understanding of life and the chemical processes that govern it o! Chemical processes within cells of organisms o! Biological chemistry PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!2! ! •! Components of biochemistry o! Organic compounds o! Enzymes o! Nucleic acids •! Organic molecules contain carbon •! Organic building blocks of all living things •! Macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules o! Carbohydrates o! Proteins o! Nucleic acids •! Catalyst- Agent that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction o! Not consumed during reaction •! Enzymes are a special class of protein catalyst o! Biological catalyst !! Increase the rate of a reaction between molecules o! Increase the rate of a reaction between molecules •! Enzymes help molecules by moving them close enough together to react •! Nucleic Acids- A complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain. o! Ribonucleic acid (RNA) !! Plays biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes o! Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) !! Encodes the genetic instructions (genes) for the development and faction of all organisms Overcoming Activation Energy: •! Two common ways o! Large amounts of heat o! Using enzymes to lower activation energy •! Small amount of heat can now push reactants to transition state •! Direct participation through temporary bonding Metabolism: •! Metabolism- All chemical reactions within a cell that allows an organism to maintain structures and grow and most importantly, respond to the environment. •! Chemical Reactions o! Occur when one or more substances are changed into other substances o! Reactants > products o! Share many properties !! Require energy (heat) !! Often require a catalyst (enzymes) !! Occur in liquid environment – water •! Metabolic Pathway- Step-by-step sequence of reactions o! The product of one reaction becomes the starting point of another PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!2! ! •! Two types of metabolism: anabolism and catabolism •! Anabolism- Chemical reactions responsible for “building” large macromolecules from smaller subunits o! “Biosynthesis” requires an input of energy •! Catabolism- The breakdown of larger molecules into subunits releasing chemical bond energy o! Used for recycling subunits o! Used to obtain energy for endergonic reactions o! Energy stored in energy intermediates !! ATP, NADH Redox Reactions and Energy Intermediates: •! Oxidation- Removal of electrons •! Reduction- Addition of electrons •! Redox reaction- Electron removed from one molecule is added to another •! Electrons removed by oxidation are used to create intermediates like NADH o! Oxidized to make ATP o! Can donate electrons during synthesis reactions ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate: •! Adenine (nucleotide) with extra 2 phosphates •! Primary energy carrying molecule in the cell •! Bond between the 2 terminal PO4 are high energy bonds •! If terminal PO4 is removed, energy is released and can be “captured” by the cell to do work •! Many proteins use ATP as a source of energy o! Each ATP undergoes 10,000 cycles of hydrolysis and re-synthesis everyday o! Particular amino acid sequences in proteins function as ATP-binding sites o! Can predict whether a newly discovered protein uses ATP or not o! On average, 20% of all proteins bind ATP o! Enormous importance of ATP as an energy source
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