New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Lecture 2 Outline

by: Katy Davit

Lecture 2 Outline Bio 1023

Katy Davit
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

An outline of the second lecture given in class
Plants and humans
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Plants and humans

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.

Popular in Biological Sciences


Reviews for Lecture 2 Outline


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/03/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!2! ! Energy and Metabolism: •! Organisms need “energy” to carry out cellular functions •! They get this energy from the environment (light and food) o! Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc. o! Not in a useable state: must be converted •! Metabolism is the process whereby chemical energy found in food is converted to useful biological energy o! ATP (adenosine triphosphate) o! Requires enzymes What is Energy? •! Energy- The ability to promote change or do work •! Comes in many forms o! Light energy o! Thermal energy o! Atomic energy o! Electrical energy o! Mechanical energy o! Chemical energy •! Types of energy o! Kinetic energy- Energy associated with movement o! Potential energy- Energy due to structure or location of substance o! Chemical energy- Potential energy held in molecular bonds Thermodynamics •! First law of thermodynamics (also called the Law of conservation of energy) o! Energy cannot be created or destroyed o! Can be transformed from one type to another o! Ex: Chemical energy into heat energy •! Second law of thermodynamics o! Transfer of transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy o! Entropy (S)- The degree of disorder of a system o! Any transfer of energy ALWAYS results in a loss of energy of heat o! No energy transfer is 100% efficient Primary Energy Transformations: •! Photosynthesis- Converting light energy (from the sun) into chemical bond energy (glucose) •! Cellular Respiration- Converting chemical bond energy in glucose into chemical bond energy in ATP (usable energy) Biochemistry: •! Involves the understanding of life and the chemical processes that govern it o! Chemical processes within cells of organisms o! Biological chemistry PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!2! ! •! Components of biochemistry o! Organic compounds o! Enzymes o! Nucleic acids •! Organic molecules contain carbon •! Organic building blocks of all living things •! Macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules o! Carbohydrates o! Proteins o! Nucleic acids •! Catalyst- Agent that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction o! Not consumed during reaction •! Enzymes are a special class of protein catalyst o! Biological catalyst !! Increase the rate of a reaction between molecules o! Increase the rate of a reaction between molecules •! Enzymes help molecules by moving them close enough together to react •! Nucleic Acids- A complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain. o! Ribonucleic acid (RNA) !! Plays biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes o! Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) !! Encodes the genetic instructions (genes) for the development and faction of all organisms Overcoming Activation Energy: •! Two common ways o! Large amounts of heat o! Using enzymes to lower activation energy •! Small amount of heat can now push reactants to transition state •! Direct participation through temporary bonding Metabolism: •! Metabolism- All chemical reactions within a cell that allows an organism to maintain structures and grow and most importantly, respond to the environment. •! Chemical Reactions o! Occur when one or more substances are changed into other substances o! Reactants > products o! Share many properties !! Require energy (heat) !! Often require a catalyst (enzymes) !! Occur in liquid environment – water •! Metabolic Pathway- Step-by-step sequence of reactions o! The product of one reaction becomes the starting point of another PLANTS!&!HUMANS!LECTURE!2! ! •! Two types of metabolism: anabolism and catabolism •! Anabolism- Chemical reactions responsible for “building” large macromolecules from smaller subunits o! “Biosynthesis” requires an input of energy •! Catabolism- The breakdown of larger molecules into subunits releasing chemical bond energy o! Used for recycling subunits o! Used to obtain energy for endergonic reactions o! Energy stored in energy intermediates !! ATP, NADH Redox Reactions and Energy Intermediates: •! Oxidation- Removal of electrons •! Reduction- Addition of electrons •! Redox reaction- Electron removed from one molecule is added to another •! Electrons removed by oxidation are used to create intermediates like NADH o! Oxidized to make ATP o! Can donate electrons during synthesis reactions ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate: •! Adenine (nucleotide) with extra 2 phosphates •! Primary energy carrying molecule in the cell •! Bond between the 2 terminal PO4 are high energy bonds •! If terminal PO4 is removed, energy is released and can be “captured” by the cell to do work •! Many proteins use ATP as a source of energy o! Each ATP undergoes 10,000 cycles of hydrolysis and re-synthesis everyday o! Particular amino acid sequences in proteins function as ATP-binding sites o! Can predict whether a newly discovered protein uses ATP or not o! On average, 20% of all proteins bind ATP o! Enormous importance of ATP as an energy source


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.