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GPH210 Week 04 Note

by: Phoebe Chang

GPH210 Week 04 Note GPH 210

Marketplace > Geography > GPH 210 > GPH210 Week 04 Note
Phoebe Chang
GPA 4.28

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Ecosystem Ecology
Society and Environment
Elizabeth Larson
Class Notes
Ecology, geography, Environment
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GPH 210 at a university taught by Elizabeth Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
GPH210EcosystemEcology SpringSEMESTER2016 Professor:Dr.ElizabethLarson EliteNotetaker:Phoebe( 1. Definitions  ○ Biosphere  ■ Living + Nonliving organisms + Environment  ○ Biogeochemical cycle  ■ Flow of matter in the ecosystem  ■ E.g. Elements, water, etc  ○ Biogeochemical cycles  ■ Distribution, abundance and movement of elements  ■ Dynamics  ● Cycles vary  ● Season change (climate affects NPP)  ● Disturbance / Succession (alters flux and pools)  ○ Cycling time  ■ The length of an element or molecule needed to pass through a  biogeochemical cycle  ○ Pools  ■ Where element resides in the ecosystem  ■ Capital  ● Total mass of an element (in a pool)  ■ Residence time  ● Average time of an element (in a pool)  ○ Fluxes  ■ The rate of elements movement  ○ Mass­balance accounting  ■ The process that accounts for the abundance of an element in an  ecosystem    2. Nutrients  ○ Elements needed to carry out functions in life  ○ About 25 in total  ○ Macronutrients (require a lot)  ■ Calcium  1 ■ Phosphorus  ■ Sulfur (acid rain)  ■ Nitrogen  ○ Micronutrients (require a little)  ■ Manganese  ■ Boron  ○ Human body composition  ■ 65% Oxygen  ■ 18.5% Carbon  ■ 9.5% Hydrogen  ■ 3.3% Nitrogen  ○ Earth atmosphere and lithosphere  ■ Mainly oxygen + silicon    3. The Rock Cycle  ○ Earth crust + Mantle cycle  ■ Rocks are converted from one type to another  ○ Three types of rocks  ■ Igneous (Solidified magma)  ■ Sedimentary (Sand, silt bound by pressure)  ■ Metamorphic (Transform from igneous or sedimentary due to heat +  pressure)    4. The Hydrologic Cycle  ○ Distribution and flux of water throughout biogeochemical system  ■ Ocean: 98%  ■ Atmosphere: 0.001%  ○ Driven factors  ■ Solar energy  ■ Gravity  ○ Three phases of water  ■ Solid ice   ■ Liquid water  ■ Gaseous water  ○ Processes  ■ Precipitation (atmosphere → hydrosphere)  ■ Evaporation / Transpiration (hydrosphere → atmosphere)   ■ Aquifer (Percolates through soil/rock → groundwater)  ■ Water in the grown have the longest residence time    5. The Carbon Cycle  ○ Facts  ■ 0.032% of atmosphere + lithosphere  2 ■ 0.0005% in biosphere  ■ Mostly in sedimentary rocks (biomass terrestrial)  ● Plant litter, waste, dead organisms  ● Portion not consumed by decomposers remain  ● Climate + water affect soil carbon pool  ■ Essential for life  ○ Driven Factors  ■ Respiration (back to atmosphere)  ■ Photosynthesis (comes from atmosphere)  ● Gross primary production (GPP)  a. Total CO2 converted each year  ● Net primary production (NPP)  a. Organic carbon available  ● Net ecosystem production (NEP)  a. Net movement of carbon into an ecosystem  ○ Aquatic / Marine Carbon  ■ CO2 in oceans, lakes, and rivers  ■ Phytoplankton  ■ Shells making for marine organisms (falls as sediment to ocean floor)  ■ Ocean absorbs carbon  ○ Human Impacts  ■ Altered carbon cycle  ■ Reduced NPP (organic carbon available)  ■ Fossil Fuels (releases carbon into atmosphere)  ● Since Industrial Revolution  ● Primary reason for increased flux of carbon     6. The Nitrogen Cycle  ○ Facts  ■ Most abundant element  ■ Small amount in crust  ■ Microorganisms transform nitrogen gas to usable forms  ■ Plants modify = amino acids / nucleic acids  ■ Limit forest to be turned into cropland  ■ Most found in fertilizer (+phosphorus)  ○ Driven Factors and Process  ■ Nitrogen Fixation  ● Atmosphere → Biosphere   ● Bacteria (convert N2 → NH3­)  ● Lighting  ■ Nitrification  ● Soil bacteria makes nitrogen available to other organisms  ■ Denitrification  3 ● Bacteria (Nitrates → N2 gas)  ○ Human Impacts  ■ Doubled rate of nitrogen fixation  ■ Haber­Bosch process  ● Nonbiological method of nitrogen fixation  ● Due to chemical fertilizer  ■ Too much nitrogen = pollutant  ■ Eutrophication  ● Aquatic ecosystems having too much nutrition causing growth of  plants and death of animals    7. The Phosphorus Cycle  ○ Facts  ■ Abundant in crust  ■ Absent in atmosphere  ■ Organisms use it as phosphate (PO4)  ■ Weathered out of sedimentary rock  ■ Limiting marine production  ○ Processes  ■ Geologic uplift → Rock → Mining → Erosion / Fertilizers and detergents  → Pollution → Runoff → Oceanic burial  ■ Rock → Weathering  ■ Soil → Land plants → Consumers → Decomposition → Soil   ○ Human Impact  ■ Mining large quantities of phosphorus for fertilizer  ■ Mining disturb ecosystem  ■ Too much phosphorous changes aquatic systems    8. The Sulfur Cycle  ○ Facts  ■ Crust: 0.07%  ■ Mostly chemically in rock  ■ Weathering + Volcanic activity releases usable forms  ■ High flux of sulfur into atmosphere  ■ Low residence time  ○ Human Impact  ■ Mining + burning fossil fuel = doubled amount of sulfur released  ■ Acid rain source 4


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