Part 1 Topic
Popular in The United States to 1877
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janae Williams on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1377 at University of Houston taught by Lawrence Curry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see The United States to 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Part I T opic V Hamiltonianism and Jeffersonianism o 2 Rival political philosophies o 2 rival political parties Founding fathers did not plan for political parties Thought they were confusing Between 1789 (Constitution started) and 1796 (Washington's last year) two conflicting political traditions developed were embodied in 2 rival political parties 1 Federalists 1 Hamiltonians i Strongly nationalistic, assertive nationalism 1 Whiskey Rebellion (1794) a One of the first acts under the Washington Administration was a federal taxes on variety of goods to raise revenue for new central gov i New tax on whiskey which raised tax to a 5th of rye whiskey ii Farmers started a riot, blew up the distilleries, interrupted court hearings 1 Provided Hamilton w/ perfect opportunity to show that the new government under constitution wasn't ineffective 1 He advised Washington to send troops in and put down the rebellion and Washington did. They put the rebellion down before they even arrived and by doing so they assured domestic tranquility 2 Broad interpretation of the U.S. Constitution a Three kinds of power i Granted or enumerated or Specified 1 Written in the constitution 1 Raise an army, regulate commerce, etc. ii Resultant 1 Powers resulting from those that are expressly written 1 The constitution gives congress power to declare war-power to control territory taken in that war ii Implied 1 Necessary and Proper powers-The central Gov, could do a host of things not listed 1 National Bank 1 Hamilton was for the bank 1 1791-wanted to create a national bank 2 "If the end be clearly comprehended within any of the specified powers and if the measure have an obvious relation to that end, and is not forbidden by any particular provision of the Constitution, it may safely be deemed to come within the compass of the national authority." 3 Legitimate ends justify legitimate means?--Yes 1 Because of this Washington agreed with Hamilton 2 Jefferson was in the bank 1 Wasn't in the constitution, so it couldn't happen 2 Give them an inch and they'll take a mile 3 If the constitution doesn't say you can do it, then you can't do it 2 Hamilton on human nature and States' Rights a "Men are ambitious, vindictive and rapacious" b States' rights are divisive c Strong Central government needed to curb man's natural instinct to quarrel and fight. 2 Elitists a Wanted government controlled by rich, well-born, and able b Feared undiluted democracy i Didn't believe the majority of the people should run the government b "The voice of the people has been said to be the voice of god; and however h=generally this maxim has been quoted and believed, it is not true to fact. The people are turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or determine right."-Hamilton c "I hold democracy in it's natural operation to be government by the worst."-George something 2 Loved England, hated France a And hated Jeffersonians because they loved France 2 Hamilton's Financial Plan a Fund national debt at par value i The gov was forced to conduct business on credit 1 Issued bonds and paper money 2 And IOU's to be paid off after war was over ii Couldn't pay off debt 1 People thought they wouldn't get any back so they sold them for cheaper 1 $100 note sold for $10 ii Hamilton wanted to honor old debts at their face value; the value printed on them 1 He would do so by issuing new Government bonds that included interest 1 Would establish the good credit of the US 2 Would allow merchants and speculators who earned most of the notes to make a great profit. 1 Only worth something if the new Government (Constitution) would survive long enough to be paid off 1 Farmers would hope the nation would succeed and maybe even invest more money in the nation. b Assume state debts i Objected because they felt it was an invasion of state's rights ii Others objected because their states debts were already paid off iii Sought to improve the rep of Central Gov. b Establish a national bank i Great bank of the US 1 Would regulate the economy of the new nation ii Cent gov was given the authority to carry out anything necessary and proper 1 An implied power b Useful and ingenious economic plan i Main goal was to draw in the support of rich, well-born, and able ii Would tie them to the new central government 2 Hamilton's Goals always Political a Men are governed by self-interest b Create a government to serve those interests i You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours b Men will support that government 2 Hamilton a A realistic political leader b Symbolize Federalist philosophy of Government i Security before liberty ii Rule by those with stake in society b Built strong and effective political party 1 Hamiltonian Federalists i Washington, Adams, Hamilton 1 Republicans 1 Jeffersonians i You can look at the constitution and see what the central government can do 2 Jeffersonian Republicans i Jefferson, Madison, o Why parties developed i Hamilton's economic Programs 1 Washington's foreign Policy 1 Effects of foreign policy at home 1 General disagreements over functions of government 1 XYZ Affair 1 October 1797 1 "Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute" 1 Sent a 3 man American group to settle things in France for diplomacy 2 When they reached Paris 3 agents of the French government (X, Y, Z) wanted a 250,000 bribe a 12 million loan and an apology before there could be any conversation or talk of diplomacy 3 Refused because the price was too high and went back to the US and told Adams who told congress who told the people a Everyone was pissed 2 Anti-French feeling in America spilled to the Jeffersonian Republicans a Federalist popularity went up and the Jeffersonians went down almost over night b Because of this the federalist jumped on and passed a bunch of bills i The naturalization Act of 1798 1 To keep new immigrants from voting 1 Federalists thought the Irish would be anti British and pro French so they suppressed their vote ii The Alien and Sedition Act 1 Gave the Pres the authority to deport any alien who was deemed dangerous to the peace and safety of the US ii Alien Enemies Act 1 Wartimes authority to deport Fundamental Questions o Proper relations between national and state gov o Proper balance between liberty and security Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798) Emphasis on States' Rights Virginia Resolutions Written by James Madison States could decide whether federal law was constitutional Kentucky Resolutions Written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson One state could decide whether federal law was constitutional on its own even if no other state agrees So what? Failed; no other states agreed- not one But significant because they raised an important constitutional question: Which government was sovereign, the state or the national Also became precedents for later states' rights arguments Represent high tide of Jeffersonian insistence on doctrine of states' rights o Major Characteristics of Jeffersonianism Limited Government "That government is best which governs least" But not anarchists--not no government Government has positive To protect natural rights-life liberty pursuit of happiness "A wise but frugal gov will restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them other wise free to regulate their improvement and will not take from others the bread they have one. This is the some of good government" "Our country is too large to have problem directed by a single government." "Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if ever he had a chosen people, whose breasts He has made His peculiar deposit Farmers are God's chosen people. o Some Conclusions Jefferson believed: American society in the late 18th century was a good society There was no reason for a strong government to change things Government just needed to protect and preserve what already existed "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." Jefferson on need for education "If a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be." "I have sworn on the alter of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." Jefferson's Political Faith "Government by a republic, responsible to an informed electorate guided by reason." Prof. Curry Means. Ends To Jeffersonians, the ENDS of government--protection "I am not an advocate for frequent changes in laws and constitutions. But laws and institutions must for hand in hand with the progress of the human mind…We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him as when a boy civilized society to remain o Political parties begin to change Federalists: Retained elitism Abandoned aggressive nationalism Republicans: Retained faith in democracy Moved from localism toward nationalism o Examples of Jeffersonian "Least Governing" Repealed Judiciary Act of 1801 Allowed Alien and Sedition laws to expire or go unenforced Repealed internal taxes Reduced federal spending Tried to remove Federalists from Judiciary National Republicans were very Jeffersonian during President Jefferson's first time. Louisiana Purchase (1803) 1. Provided enough new land for all--an "empire of liberty" 2. Strengthened Jeffersonians' nationalism 3. Stimulated American nationalism 1. Popular amongst most Americans War of 1812: two symbolic events 1. Hartford Convention (1814-1815) 1. Federalists consider secession and interposition 2. Delegates didn't know when war was over and didn't car when they did 2 Emergence of "Old Hickory" at the Battle of New Orleans (8 January 1815) 1. Andrew Jackson-"Old Hickory" 1 Late December 1813 began a Major military campaign against New Orleans defended by a small group of men led by Andrew Jackson 2 British were defeated; 700 British soldiers were killed, 1400 wounded 500+ captured. Only 8 America militia men were killed, 13 wounded 3 "I cannot sir perhaps language cannot do justice to general Jackson…" National Republicans Change o Support protective tariffs o Support Second Bank of the US o Support federally financial internal improvements John Adams put John Marshall up as the Chief Justice in his last day of his term John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism o Marshall broadened the power of the central government, often at the expense of the states 1. Marbury V. Madison (1803) 1. Judicial Review Established 2. Fletcher V. Peck (1810) 1. U.S. Courts superiority to state courts proclaimed 2. Dartmouth College V. Woodward (1819) 1. Economic nationalism enhanced 2. McCulloch V. Maryland (1819) 1. Implied powers confirmed 2. Gibbons V. Ogden (1824) 1. Federal control of interstate commerce established Chief Justice Marshall's Classic Statement of Loose Construction o "Let the end legitimate, let it ne within the scope of the Constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consistent with the letter and spirit of the constitution. Why Marshall's decision often unpopular o Strong nationalistic bias o Elitist-for the "haves" o Mistrust of the people's ability to rule themselves
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