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Proseminar in Development Week 1 Notes (Ch. 1-3)

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by: Michele Siu

Proseminar in Development Week 1 Notes (Ch. 1-3) 20100-02

Marketplace > Ithaca College > 20100-02 > Proseminar in Development Week 1 Notes Ch 1 3
Michele Siu
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About this Document

Notes cover first week. Each notes will include two section as the course has 2 sessions of class per week.
Proseminar in Development
Brandy Bessette-Symons
Class Notes
Psychology, development, Proseminar, week 1, Ch 1-3




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"If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!"
Mrs. Tod Bartoletti

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michele Siu on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20100-02 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bessette-Symons in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.


Reviews for Proseminar in Development Week 1 Notes (Ch. 1-3)

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If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!

-Mrs. Tod Bartoletti


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Proseminar in Development An Orientation in Lifespan Development Section 1 Life Span: Born > Death Development: Study of change, growth, decline, continuous, potential for growth, stability Four Broad Topical Areas (Key Terms) Cognitive: Intellectual, how we think, remember, decisions Social: How we interact with people in society, relationships Physical: Bodily systems, size, weight, organ, neuro Personality: Characteristics, funny etc. (ex betty white funny all her life) *Personality somewhat stable, emotion effected by personality STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Prenatal- conception to birth Infancy & Toddlerhood- Ages 0-3, Language Early Childhood- Ages 3-6, formal education, read, social Middle Childhood- Ages 6-12, Puberty, physical, shrinking time Adolescence- Ages 12-20, extending time, legal responsibility, social Early Adulthood- Ages 20-40 (40 is the new 20) Middle Adulthood- Ages 40-60 Late Adulthood- Ages 60- Death COHORT: People born at same time and place-people most close to your situation (environment effects person) Cultural Factors & Development Diversity Broad Cultural Factors- shared basic value orientations, norms, beliefs and customary habits Individualism-best YOU can do Collectivism- GROUP has to do well Finer Cultural Differences -Ethnicity: Cultural background, nationality, religion, language, fluid and solid qualities -Race: Biological, 99.9% shared genetic make up in humans to human, and humans to chimpanzee -Social Economic Status -Gender Influences on Development: *Age graded universal changes (ex. Puberty 10-14 ages) *Physical genetic changes *Social clock or the age norm (ageism) *History graded changes- Cohort or generational effect *Social cultural graded *Non-normative changes- unique or unshared changes, individual differences (ex. Rape) KEY DEBATE in DEVELOPMENT -Types of changes- Continuous: change in amount or degree (ex. IQ) Discontinuous: step like changes, change in kind or type, new ability (ex. Walking) Timing and Impact: (ex. losing spouse at 24 vs. 60 years old) The lifespan perspective -Paul Baltes Plasticity and adaptability at all ages Critical Period- greatest consequence of certain events, irreversible, necessary stimuli of normal development ex.) Rubella contracted pregnancy Week 11: death, blind, death, heart defects Week 30: fine, healthy child born Sensitive period- more sensitive when something at life happen at a certain time Ex.) learning languages Section 2 The “Biggy” (Nature vs. Nurture) (Hereditary vs. Environment) (Nativism vs. Empiricism) Nature: (Genetics) Inborn influences, maturation, unfolding of genetic info Nurture: physical and social environment, societal, interaction Theoretical perspective: emphasize different aspects of development Theories- broad, organized frameworks, explanations and predictions, phenomenon of interest Psychodynamic Perspectives- unconscious influences Psychodynamic Theories: Freud internal drive and emotion to personality and behavior Theory of personality: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO ID-Pleasure principle, unconscious, hunger, aggression, impulse SUPEREGO- learned social emerges (Age 5-6) learn about society EGO-Reality principle nd Freud 2 Theory: Psycho sexual stages at each stage the libido centers on different part of body Ages 0-1 Mouth-sucking, biting, eating Effects as adults: optimism, dependency, talkative, pessimism, sarcasm, aggressive Ages 1-3 Anal- toilet training, withholding feces, Effects: cleanliness, messiness, rebellious Ages 3-6 Phallic genital sexual curiosity, masturbates, oedipal conflict (likes mom& dad) Effects: flirtatiousness, vanity, pride, promiscuous, chastity Ages 5-puberty Latency None- calm and focused on school, interest in activities Puberty to adult- Genital- normal sex traits ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY Followed Freud, but said Freud had to much to do with sex (8 stages & Crisis Resolution in Lifespan) Strength & Weakness in theories in general Positive: unconscious influences are undeniable and does cover lifespan Negatives: Link childhood to adult personality, external validity, testability Ex. Freud only focused on upper class male nothing about female or different race not until Freud daughter came up with theories for women Behavioral Perspectives: Observable behavior and environment – John Watson Conditioning & Social learning theory Classical Conditioning: Pavlov Pairs neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus to get behavior wanted. Unconditioned Stimulus: food Unconditioned Response: dog saliva at food Pairs food with bell tone Conditioned stimulus: bell tone Conditioned response: Saliva at bell tone Operant Conditioning- B.F. Skinner Shaping of voluntary behavior, trial and error, reinforcement and punishment Increase behavior (reinforce)- -Give something they like to reinforce behavior (positive reinforcement) -Take away something they don’t like (negative reinforcement) Decrease behavior (punishment) -Give punishment they don’t like (Positive Punishment) -Take away something they do like (Negative punishment) Social Cognitive Learning Theory- Bandura Modeling, observing, Bobo Doll experiment *Problem with this theory is that people start to think they have a chance of being the odd man out such as winning the lotto or not getting a speeding ticket- Odd man out because they say “oh that won’t happen to me” since it is not experienced first hand Cognitive Perspective-Process involved in knowing understanding and thinking Evolution of logical thinking- Piaget Stages Sensorimotor Pre-operational Concrete-operational Formal-operational Theory of Cognitive Development Quantitative & Qualities learned Scheme- understanding changes & addition to learning Assimilation- addition to learning Accommodation- changes to learned or learning *Rate of development differs between individuals


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