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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna O'Neil on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECHD 3170 at University of Georgia taught by Brian Stewart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Drug and Alcohol A in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Chapter 1 1. What constitutes a drug? a. Any substance that modifies (enhances, inhibits, or distorts) mind/body functioning b. What are the psychoactive drugs? i. Drug compounds (substances) that affect the central nervous system and/or alter consciousness and/or perceptions ii. Classified as either 1. Licit (legal): coffee, tea, alcohol, tobacco, over the counter drugs… 2. Illicit (illegal): marijuana, cocaine, and LSD… 2. What are the most commonly abused drugs? 3. How widespread is drug use? 4. What is the extent and frequency of drug use in our society? 5. What types of drug users exist? 6. How does the media influence drug use? • Drug use: o Drug users are found in all occupations and professions, at all income levels and social class levels, and in all age groups o No one is immune to drug use (that can lead to drug dependence). Drug use is an equal opportunity affliction. o 4 principle factors that affect drug use: § Biological, genetic, and pharmacological factors: substance abuse and addiction involve biological and genetic factors. The pharmacology of drug use focuses on how the ingredients of a particular drug affects the body and the nervous system and in turn a persons experience with a particular drug § Cultural factors § Social factors § Contextual factors: how do physical surroundings affect the amount of drug use? • Depressants: o Alcohol (ethanol), barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and sedative-‐ hypnotics o All drugs in this class are addictive, can be overdosed, create cross tolerance for each other, and have risk of potentiation (combination effects) • Opiates (narcotics): o Includes heroin, morphine, opium, methadone, vicodin, Percocet, and codeine o Opiates reduce pain, can create euphoria or drowsiness o Euphoria is associated with risk of addiction o High risk of dependence • Stimulants: o Cocaine, amphetamines, weight loss drugs, Ritalin, nicotine, and caffeine o Potential for addiction, overdose, depression and anxiety disorders o Creates euphoria, elevates mood, sense of excitement, impulsivity • Cannabis: o Active ingredients: THC o Strength depends on “grade” or THC content o Much stronger than in the past, up to 30% THC content § In the past 0.05%-‐1% Hallucinogens: § Includes LSD, ecstasy (also a stimulant), mescaline, PCP, DMT, peyote, and ketamine § Acts on brain serotonin and dopamine § Risk of dependence is low or unknown (except PCP) Inhalants: § Includes household chemicals, nitrous oxide, and amyl nitrates § Neurotoxic § Risk of overdose, neurological disorders, brain damage Anabolic-‐Androgenic Steroids: § Not strictly psychoactive or mood altering § Increases the speed and growth of body tissues § Risk of dependence, mood change, health problems Prescription and over the counter drugs: § Fall into multiple categories § Widely abused and misused § Misuse comes in many forms Gateway drugs: § Types of commonly used drugs that are believed to lead to the use of other more powerful mind altering and addictive drugs, such as hallucinogens, cocaine, crack, heroine Drug Misuse: unintentional or inappropriate use of prescription or over the counter drugs 6 examples: 1. Taking more drugs than prescribed 2. Using OTC or psychoactive drugs in excess without medical supervision 3. Mixing drugs with alcohol or other types of drugs 4. Using old medicines to self treat Dimensions of Drug Abuse: Drug abuse: also known as chemical or substance abuse and is the willful misuse of either illicit or licit drugs for the purpose of recreation Erich Goode’s 4 types of Drug use: 1. Legal instrumental use 2. Legal recreational use 3. Illegal instrumental use: taking nonprescription drugs to achieve a task or goal 4. Illegal recreational use: taking illicit drugs for fun or pleasure 3 types of drug users: 1. Experimenters 2. Compulsive users 3. Floaters or “chippers: focus more on using other peoples drugs without maintaining as much of a personal supply When does use lead to abuse: § The amount of drug taken does not determine abuse § The motive for taking the drugs is the most important factor in determining presence of abuse § Initial drug abuse symptoms include: o Excessive use o Constant preoccupation about the availability and supply of drug o Refusal to admit excessive use o Reliance on the drug Dependence: Physical dependence and psychological dependence Stages of drug dependence: 1. Relief 2. Increased use 3. Preoccupation 4. Dependency 5. Withdrawal Drug users are more likely to commit crimes. 2/1/16 – WATCHED A “WAR ON DRUGS” 2/3/16 Drug War Costs § Estimated at $45.5 billion (minimum) in 2005. § 33% of state prison sentences are for drug possession or distribution (2002) § 57% of federal prison inmates are imprisoned for drug offenses Social Costs § Broken families § Reduction of prison capacity for violent offenders § Stigma of drug arrest/conviction Kefauver-‐ Harris Amendment: § Passed as a consequence of the thalidomide tragedy § Drug manufacturing has to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of drugs § The FDA was empowered to withdraw approval of a drug than was already being marketed Thalidomide: • Treatment for morning sickness • Caused birth defects • Initially thought as “safe” for pregnant women to take Regulatory Steps for New Prescription Drugs 1. Preclinical research and development a. Tests must be run on at least 2 or more animals 2. Clinical research and development on species intended (humans) a. Initial clinical stage (20-‐100) b. Clinical pharmacological evaluation stage-‐ side effects of drug and effectiveness c. Extended clinical evaluation-‐ offer drug to wider group to establish efficacy 3. Permission to market a. Post marketing surveillance b. Average development of new drug is $4 billion Orphan Drug Law-‐ tax advantages for development of drugs to treat “rare disease” since this can be otherwise unprofitable Prescription drug user fee act of 1992
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