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Week 1 and 2

by: Anna O'Neil

Week 1 and 2 ECHD 3170

Anna O'Neil
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

We didn't take many notes this week but here are week 1 and week 2 combined notes. Study the book as well. Study guide to come later!
Drug and Alcohol A
Brian Stewart
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna O'Neil on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECHD 3170 at University of Georgia taught by Brian Stewart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Drug and Alcohol A in Business at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Drug  and  Alcohol  Abuse:   Chapter  1     1. What  constitutes  a  drug?   a. Any  substance  that  modifies  (enhances,  inhibits,  or  distorts)   mind/body  functioning   b. What  are  the  psychoactive  drugs?   i. Drug  compounds  (substances)  that  affect  the  central  nervous   system  and/or  alter  consciousness  and/or  perceptions   ii. Classified  as  either   1. Licit  (legal):  coffee,  tea,  alcohol,  tobacco,  over  the   counter  drugs…   2. Illicit  (illegal):  marijuana,  cocaine,  and  LSD…   2. What  are  the  most  commonly  abused  drugs?   3. How  widespread  is  drug  use?   4. What  is  the  extent  and  frequency  of  drug  use  in  our  society?   5. What  types  of  drug  users  exist?   6. How  does  the  media  influence  drug  use?     • Drug  use:   o Drug  users  are  found  in  all  occupations  and  professions,  at  all  income   levels  and  social  class  levels,  and  in  all  age  groups   o No  one  is  immune  to  drug  use  (that  can  lead  to  drug  dependence).   Drug  use  is  an  equal  opportunity  affliction.   o 4  principle  factors  that  affect  drug  use:   § Biological,  genetic,  and  pharmacological  factors:  substance   abuse  and  addiction  involve  biological  and  genetic  factors.  The   pharmacology  of  drug  use  focuses  on  how  the  ingredients  of  a   particular  drug  affects  the  body  and  the  nervous  system  and  in   turn  a  persons  experience  with  a  particular  drug   § Cultural  factors   § Social  factors   § Contextual  factors:  how  do  physical  surroundings  affect  the   amount  of  drug  use?   • Depressants:     o Alcohol  (ethanol),  barbiturates,  benzodiazepines,  and  sedative-­‐ hypnotics   o All  drugs  in  this  class  are  addictive,  can  be  overdosed,  create  cross   tolerance  for  each  other,  and  have  risk  of  potentiation  (combination   effects)   • Opiates  (narcotics):   o Includes  heroin,  morphine,  opium,  methadone,  vicodin,  Percocet,  and   codeine   o Opiates  reduce  pain,  can  create  euphoria  or  drowsiness   o Euphoria  is  associated  with  risk  of  addiction   o High  risk  of  dependence   • Stimulants:   o Cocaine,  amphetamines,  weight  loss  drugs,  Ritalin,  nicotine,  and   caffeine   o Potential  for  addiction,  overdose,  depression  and  anxiety  disorders   o Creates  euphoria,  elevates  mood,  sense  of  excitement,  impulsivity   • Cannabis:   o Active  ingredients:  THC   o Strength  depends  on  “grade”  or  THC  content   o Much  stronger  than  in  the  past,  up  to  30%  THC  content   § In  the  past  0.05%-­‐1%   Hallucinogens:   § Includes  LSD,  ecstasy  (also  a  stimulant),  mescaline,  PCP,  DMT,  peyote,   and  ketamine   § Acts  on  brain  serotonin  and  dopamine   § Risk  of  dependence  is  low  or  unknown  (except  PCP)   Inhalants:   § Includes  household  chemicals,  nitrous  oxide,  and  amyl  nitrates   § Neurotoxic   § Risk  of  overdose,  neurological  disorders,  brain  damage   Anabolic-­‐Androgenic  Steroids:   § Not  strictly  psychoactive  or  mood  altering   § Increases  the  speed  and  growth  of  body  tissues   § Risk  of  dependence,  mood  change,  health  problems   Prescription  and  over  the  counter  drugs:   § Fall  into  multiple  categories     § Widely  abused  and  misused   § Misuse  comes  in  many  forms   Gateway  drugs:   § Types  of  commonly  used  drugs  that  are  believed  to  lead  to  the  use    of   other  more  powerful  mind  altering  and  addictive  drugs,  such  as   hallucinogens,  cocaine,  crack,  heroine   Drug  Misuse:  unintentional  or  inappropriate  use  of  prescription  or  over  the  counter   drugs       6  examples:   1. Taking  more  drugs  than  prescribed   2. Using  OTC  or  psychoactive  drugs  in  excess  without  medical   supervision   3. Mixing  drugs  with  alcohol  or  other  types  of  drugs     4. Using  old  medicines  to  self  treat   Dimensions  of  Drug  Abuse:     Drug  abuse:    also  known  as  chemical  or  substance  abuse  and  is  the  willful   misuse  of  either  illicit  or  licit  drugs  for  the  purpose  of  recreation     Erich  Goode’s  4  types  of  Drug  use:   1. Legal  instrumental  use   2. Legal  recreational  use   3. Illegal  instrumental  use:  taking  nonprescription  drugs   to  achieve  a  task  or  goal   4. Illegal  recreational  use:  taking  illicit  drugs  for  fun  or   pleasure   3  types  of  drug  users:   1. Experimenters   2. Compulsive  users   3. Floaters  or  “chippers:  focus  more  on  using  other  peoples  drugs  without   maintaining  as  much  of  a  personal  supply     When  does  use  lead  to  abuse:   § The  amount  of  drug  taken  does  not  determine  abuse   § The  motive  for  taking  the  drugs  is  the  most  important  factor  in   determining  presence  of  abuse   § Initial  drug  abuse  symptoms  include:   o Excessive  use   o Constant  preoccupation  about  the  availability  and  supply  of   drug   o Refusal  to  admit  excessive  use   o Reliance  on  the  drug   Dependence:     Physical  dependence  and  psychological  dependence   Stages  of  drug  dependence:   1. Relief   2. Increased  use   3. Preoccupation   4. Dependency   5. Withdrawal   Drug  users  are  more  likely  to  commit  crimes.     2/1/16  –  WATCHED  A  “WAR  ON  DRUGS”     2/3/16     Drug  War  Costs   § Estimated  at  $45.5  billion  (minimum)  in  2005.   § 33%  of  state  prison  sentences  are  for  drug  possession  or  distribution  (2002)   § 57%  of  federal  prison  inmates  are  imprisoned  for  drug  offenses   Social  Costs   § Broken  families   § Reduction  of  prison  capacity  for  violent  offenders   § Stigma  of  drug  arrest/conviction     Kefauver-­‐  Harris  Amendment:   § Passed  as  a  consequence  of  the  thalidomide  tragedy   § Drug  manufacturing  has  to  demonstrate  the  efficacy  and  safety  of  drugs   § The  FDA  was  empowered  to  withdraw  approval  of  a  drug  than  was  already   being  marketed     Thalidomide:   • Treatment  for  morning  sickness   • Caused  birth  defects   • Initially  thought  as  “safe”  for  pregnant  women  to  take   Regulatory  Steps  for  New  Prescription  Drugs   1. Preclinical  research  and  development     a. Tests  must  be  run  on  at  least  2  or  more  animals     2. Clinical  research  and  development  on  species  intended  (humans)   a. Initial  clinical  stage  (20-­‐100)   b. Clinical  pharmacological  evaluation  stage-­‐  side  effects  of  drug  and   effectiveness   c. Extended  clinical  evaluation-­‐  offer  drug  to  wider  group  to   establish  efficacy   3. Permission  to  market   a. Post  marketing  surveillance   b. Average  development  of  new  drug  is  $4  billion   Orphan  Drug  Law-­‐  tax  advantages  for  development  of  drugs  to  treat  “rare  disease”   since  this  can  be  otherwise  unprofitable   Prescription  drug  user  fee  act  of  1992    


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