Chapter 23 Outline
Chapter 23 Outline HIST 1120
University of Memphis
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 at University of Memphis taught by White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see World Civilization II in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 23 Outline Chronology - 1473-1543 Life of Nicholas Copernicus - 1478 Foundation of the Spanish Inquisition - 1483-1546 Life of Martin Luther - 1517 Publication of The Ninety-ﬁve Theses - 1540 Foundation of the Society of Jesus - 1545-1563 Council if Trent - 1564-1642 Life of Galileo Galilei - 1571-1630 Life of Johannes Kepler - 1618-1648 Thirty Years’ War - 1642-1727 Life of Isaac Newton - 1643-1715 Reign of King Louis XIV - 1648 Peace of Westphalia - 1694-1778 Life of Voltaire - 1723-1790 Life of Adam Smith The Protestant Reformation - Protestant reformation - Luther attacked the Roman church - challenged authority of the Pope - Germany passed laws to follow the Protestant doctrine and procedures - John Calvin proposed his treatise Institutes of the Christian Religion - Calvin had slightly different ideas from Luther and created calvinism - King Henry wanted to divorce his wife - Henry made himself head of the Angelic Church - severed relations with the Roman Catholic Church - Catholic Reformation - Council of Trent - assembly of high church ofﬁcials - deﬁned the ideas of Roman Catholic theology - established seminaries to prepare priests - St.Ignatius of Loyola created Society of Jesus (Jesuits) - made effective missionaries - served as councils to the King Witch Hunts and Religious Wars - 16th-17th century people feared alliance with the Devil - 110,000 were on trial; 60,000 died - most were poor, old, single women (95%) - revealed the stress that affected European society - religious tensions between Protestants and Catholics - religious convictions between the Netherlands and Spain - The Thirty Years’ War - Holy Roman Emperor attempted to convert his Bohemian subjects to return to roman Catholic church - complicated other issues and made them more difﬁcult to resolve The Attempted Revival of Empire - no effective imperial government in western Europe - Charles V became emperor in 1519 - did not extend his authority throughout Europe - had to put down religious upheavals - prevented Charles V from establishing his vast empire as the number one authority in Europe - abdicated his throne and retired to a monastery in Sapin The New Monarchs - public affairs fell to various regional states - New Monarchs sought to enhance their treasuries - new taxes imposed - new powerful armies arose - increase control over nobility - The Spanish Inquisition - operate institutions as a royal agency - detected Judaism, Islam, Protestantism - thousands died or were wrongly accused of heresy Constitutional States - constitutional government came to England after religious disputes - parliament disposed of the King and invited William and Mary to rule - people get representation - 1581 Dutch provinces declared themselves independent - merchants were prominent in political affairs - English and Dutch alliance between merchants and rulers Absolute Monarchies - King Louis XIV epitomized an absolute monarchy - built the Palace of Versailles - insisted that his nobles live there with him to keep an eye on them - Peter I of Russia wanted to transform Russia - wanted great military power - learned about western militaries and administrative methods - sparked potest - new seaport opened to serve as a navy port and the capital - Catherine the Great sought to make Russia great - improved government efﬁciency - economic development - restricted punishment on peasants - warned against rebellion - preservation of aristocratic rule - centralization and strengthening of the state The European States System - The Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty years’ war - independent competing states - organized their own religious affairs - coalition against Louis - no ruler wanted to see one person dominate more than the other - balance of power politics - prevented building an empire - sought to develop more advanced military Population Growth and Urbanization - economic expansion was population growth - Columbian Exchange enriched diets - improved immunity of European diseases - rapid urbanization as well as population growth Early Capitalism and Protoindustrialization - economic development - capitalism emerged - joint-stock companies were important - principal foundation of global economy - had active support of government authorities - merchants were vey inﬂuential - recognized right to own private property - imperial rule and colonial rule were important - new ways to manufacture goods - “putting-out” system - discouraged competition Social Change in Early Modern Europe - Russia had little trade or manufacturing - still practiced serfdom - played crucial roles in the emergence of capitalism - capitalism posed moral challenges - regarded proﬁt making as morally dangerous - Adam Smith: society would prosper if individuals had their own economic interests - transition to capitalist economy was difﬁcult - manifested into violence - capitalism favored the nuclear family - offered more opportunities for independent families - love between man and woman became more important when marrying - affection between parents and children became more important The Reconnection of the Universe - Nicholas Copernicus wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres - sun was the center and planets revolved around it - threatened cherished religious beliefs Scientiﬁc Revolution - Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler demonstrated that the orbits are elliptical - observed the spots of the sun and the moon with a telescope - universe is much larger than everyone thought originally - Isaac Newton wrote Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy - mathematical principles that govern movements of bodies on Earth - Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion - Gravity Women in Science - Émilie du Châtlet (married to Voltaire) was a mathematician and physicist - wrote Principe Mathematica - explained Newton’s complex ideas
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