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LIFE 103- Animals week 3

by: Alexis Darling

LIFE 103- Animals week 3 LIFE 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > LIFE 103 Animals week 3
Alexis Darling
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Trends, trade-offs, and mechanisms through evolution
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 04/09/16
Trends in Evolution:  ● Larger brains  ● Larger and more muscles  ● Upright limb posture (appendages directly underneath body weight)  ● Nocturnal habits (led to development of 3 middle ear bones and whiskers for sensing at  night)    ● Homeothermy­ maintenance of a stable internal body temperature despite environmental  influences; can be regulated through behavior or metabolism  ○ Example: Pelycosaurs (not a dinosaur)­ evolved large flat organ on top of their  bodies with lots of blood flow through; could cool themselves or turn to sun to  absorb heat  ○ Opposite=Poikilothermy­ internal body temperature varies with environmental  conditions  These developments cost a lot metabolically­ need ​ solutions​  for trade­offs:  ● Heterodonty­ specialized teeth; could preprocess food so that digestive system absorbed  more for each gram consumed  ● Secondary palate­ membrane that separates digestive tract from respiratory system; could  breath while eating so that there is a constant supply of oxygen  ● Endothermy­ use of metabolism for heat; can regulate internal body temperature by  metabolism. Also blood vessels kept in fossilized bones.          Body Structure and Function:  Fundamental challenges= obtain nutrients and oxygen, excrete wastes, move  Natural selection lead to the more successful solutions being favored. If a trait has an adaptive  function, its “form reflects its function.” This is seen at all levels:  ­ Molecular: Enzymes have a specific structure for a specific substrate        Phospholipids have characteristics (nonpolar and polar sides) to form bilayer  ­ Cellular: Cells have a certain shape for their job; nerve vs epithelial vs muscle  ­ Tissue: Groups of epithelial cells can be flat for a covering, vertically aligned to increase  surface area, or shaped round a vessel  Embryonic tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) for specific function  *Give rise to different types of tissues, each with different function:  ­Connective (support, connect or separate)  ­Nervous (regulation and communication for control)  ­Muscle (movement)  ­Epithelial (line/cover)  ­ Organs  ­ Organ systems  ­ Organism: body shape for fastest movement through water, or stride length for fastest  movement on land  ­ Specific solutions vary: For flight, pterodactyl has a single elongated digit to  support flight membrane, while birds fused distal bony elements to support  feathers, and bats elongated 4 digits.    Themes of Form and Function:  A) Body size  Larger animals need more food, take longer to mature, and reproduce slowly, but they lose heat  and water slowly. Smaller animals are the opposite with the tradeoffs.   ~Metabolic rate­ amount of oxygen used per unit time­ a measure of cellular activity  As animal size DECreases, metabolic weight per unit body mass increases (a shrew eats more  per unit body weight than an elephant, even though it needs less total food).  ~Longevity­ how long the typical lifespan of an animal is  As body mass increases, longevity increases.  Combining these relationships, the larger the animal, the slower the metabolic rate and the longer  lifespan. The smaller the animal, the faster the metabolic rate and the shorter the lifespan.    B) Surface area to volume ratios  Surface area is needed for exchange (to obtain nutrients and oxygen and excrete wastes).  Therefore as animal size increases, there must be a solution.  Ex: salmon hatchlings begin with nearly all oxygen exchange occurring through their  skin, but as they grow older, gills take over.  In complex animals, each group of cells are specialized to increase surface area in their specific  environment.  Ex: cells that line the intestines form many folds, lung tissue is arranged for the most  surface area with capillaries, and blood vessels branch throughout kidney.  Adaptations: ­flattening            ­folding                        ­branching    C) Homeostasis and thermoregulation  ~Homeostasis= keeping internal chemical and physical situations within a tolerable range despite  external environment     *Important for enzyme function (each enzyme has an optimal temperature), chemical reactions  in body, proteins (to not denature), and cells (to not destroy by freezing or heat)         ~Conformers­ body temperature varies with environmental temperature (poikilotherm)  vs ~Regulators­ body temperature maintains fairly stable despite changing environment  (homeotherm)  Both use acclimatization­ adjustments to gradual environmental changes to stay near optimal  performance.  Ex: Daphnia changes what enzymes it mainly has for what works best at that new  temperature.    How to maintain homeostasis: Negative Feedback System­  1. Set point­ the optimal conditions  2. Stimulus­ a change away from the set point  3. Sensor/control center­ detects change, initiates response;  4. Response­ reaction by turning off or activating a certain pathway to minimize effect    ~Thermoregulation= maintaining internal temperature within normal range  By method of…      ~endothermy­ metabolism produces main source of heat. Positive: can sustain activity in  different conditions  or ~ectothermy­ use environment to absorb heat. Positive: requires less energy    Mechanisms of Heat Exchange:  ● Conduction: direct contact between solids  ○ Ex­ snake on warm rock  ● Convection: direct contact between solid and gas  ○ Ex­ hare’s big, vascularized ears  ● Radiation: no direct contact (principally refers to heat from sun)  ○ Ex­ bird opening wings toward sunlight  ● Evaporation: water has the special property of a high heat of vaporization, therefore it  takes a lot of heat with it when evaporated  ○ Ex­ dog panting    Generating and Retaining Heat:  ● Insulation­ layer of fur to form air barrier or layer of blubber for fat barrier  ○ Nearly all in endothermic animals (to avoid loss of heat from internal metabolism)  ○ Mainly in aquatic animals because water has high heat capacity (absorbs heat  rapidly)  ● Behavioral heat absorption and regulation­ basking in sun, hiding in shade, being active  only certain times of day, etc  ● Circulatory adaptations­ ​ Vasodilation and vasoconstriction​ = delivering different amounts  of heated blood to skin surface to heat extremities/far tissues or cool blood (not the best  because when heated blood is sent more to extremities, more heat is lost  ■ Countercurrent exchange​ = artery ‘hugs’ vein so that heat flows from  artery into vein before heated blood gets to extremities­ heat goes back up  with veins and stays in body­ keeps core temperature up and extremities  cold  ● Metabolic heat production (endothermy)  ○ Shivering thermogenesis­ constriction of muscles produces heat  ○ Non­shivering thermogenesis­ burns brown fat for heat    Thermoregulation and Energy Conservation (for endothermic animals)  ● Torpor­ DAILY pattern of decreased physiological activity  ○ Mainly for small endotherms with high metabolic rates; active at night, don’t  move much during day  ● Hibernation­ SEASONAL state of decreased physiological activity  ○ Mainly mammals  ● Aestivation­ “summer hibernation”­ often facultative  ○ Mainly in hot areas where resources are limited in summer instead of winter  All are heterothermy mechanisms­ they change their set point (like body temperature) in  response to environmental stress    *White nose syndrome­ fungus grows on nose of bats, saps energy as hyphae extend through and  feed off tissues­ wakes bats early in year (January/February) before enough insects to survive. 


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