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Environmental Geology 1-26-16,1-28-16

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by: Maddy Yates

Environmental Geology 1-26-16,1-28-16 103

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Geology > 103 > Environmental Geology 1 26 16 1 28 16
Maddy Yates
GPA 2.92

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Hi Class! I just uploaded a detailed set of notes for this class. You can check-out a free preview by following the link below
Earth's Environments
Edmund Perfect
Class Notes
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"These were really helpful...I'll be checking back regularly for these"
Cameron Ortiz II

Popular in Earth's Environments

Popular in Geology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Yates on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Edmund Perfect in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Earth's Environments in Geology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity The Biosphere Outline  Commons  Spheres  Biosphere interaction  Hierarchy of the Biosphere  Populations  Communities  Ecosystems  Role of the Individual.  Why do individuals have values that lead to degradation of commons?  Discounting the future (not thinking about the living conditions of future generations)  Discounting by distance (not thinking about how pollution from our region affects a region further away)  Sustainability movement: meeting the needs of today without reducing the quality of life in the future  Promoting Sustainability by Paying True Costs.  When market costs don’t reflect the true cost of a product or service it is a market failure  Green Fees: the cost of products and services to include environmental costs  The U.S. lags far behind most industrial nations in the use of Green Fees  The reason for this, is to keep products cheap  Low prices= more pollution  Spheres of the Environment.  The natural environment can be split into two parts  Physical Environment: the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere  Biological Environment: the Biosphere,  The life of the biosphere inhabits and effects other spheres  The Study of the Biosphere Interactions.  The science of hoe organisms interact with each other and with physical environment is called?  Ecology (“eco” means home, “logia” means study of)  Ecological principals are valuable for assessing how people disturb biological systems and how to minimize this.  If used in a broader term, ecology means to protest, concern about the environment, but it is commonly confused with Environmentalism.  Hierarchy of the Biosphere.  Organisms are composed of atoms, molecules, and cells grouped into populations. 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity  Populations form communities which then form ecosystems  Ecosystems create the biosphere  Populations.  Populations: group of organisms of the same species living in the same area  Geographic Range: total area occupied by said population  Populations tend to peak in abundance in the center of the range where conditions are prime  Population Density.  Unmanaged populations undergo a series of 5 different phases:  Growth  Overshoot  Crash  Stability  Decline  *Growth phase is typically exponential  99% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct (most of these predate humans)  Abundance Control.  Carrying Capacity is the maximum population that can be sustained in an area after a long period.  Both physical and biological factors influence the maximum population size.  Population constrained by supply of resources  Law of Minimum: growth is limited by the resource in shortest supply, and takes only one aspect of the physical environment to limit population growth.  Biological Controls on Abundance.  Competition  Niche: how an organism fits in its habitat  Niche Overlap  Competitive Exclusion  Predation  Symbiosis  Predation: one species feeding off another  Symbiosis: indicates the existence of a relationship between two different organisms  Sym= together  Biosis= life  Predation and competition are both forms of Symbiosis  Types of Symbiosis:  Mutualism (both animals benefit) 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity   Predation and Parasitism (One species benefits and the other is harmed)  Commensalism (one species benefits and the other isn’t bothered or helped)  Competition (both species are decremented by the continuing loss of a resource)  Amensalism (One species is harmed and the other isn’t bothered or helped) 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity Communities, Ecosystems, Biodiversity  Communities.  A community consists of all the populations of different species  Most natural communities contain thousands of species  Community analysis is like structural analysis  Most communities are OPEN- meaning population ranges overlap each other  Some communities are CLOSED- meaning a sharp boundary separating clusters of species  Community Succession.  Mean the change of an environment over time  Immigration od one species by replacing an old species that dies off  Succession occurs because each community prepares the landscape for the next stage of species  Succession is characterized by:  Increasing biodiversity  Increasing biomass  Ecosystems.  Is everything that exists in a particular environment (Merriam-Webster)  Energy and matter are routed through an ecosystem by feeding relationships  Biomass Pyramids.  The first “feeding” level is the producers, which capture energy from non-living environment  Consumers derive energy from chemical energy stored in the bodies of prey or plants  Biomass is the weight of living matter  Biomass decreases from each trophic level  In general, 80-95% of the energy is lost as it goes between each level  Ecosystem Productivity.  Net Primary Productivity: is the rate at which producers create biomass.  Nine Major Biomes.  Biome is a large scale grouping that includes many communities/ ecosystems  Biomes are largely determined by climate  7 kinds:  Tundra  Grasslands  Savannah  Desert  Taiga 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity  Temperate Forest  Tropical Forest  Two aquatic biomes:  Freshwater  Marine  Evolution and Diversification.  Diversification of organisms over time through Natural Selection.  Charles Darwin, 1859, formed the theory of evolution. It occurs due to individual variation.  Gregory Mendel, genetic mutation, experimented on sweet peas  Measuring Biodiversity.  a common approach is to count the number of species per unit area  a plot of species rich-ness versus area occupies is called a species area curve.  A graph of this information can be used to:  Estimate biodiversity in unexplored area  Predict extinctions due to loss od habitat  Types of Biodiversity Loss.  Ecological extinction  A species is too rare to impact ecosystem  Extrapolation  Species dies out in local area  Community degradation  Decline in the number of species in ecosystem  Lower diversity= easier disruption  Ecosystem health can be defined by indicator species  Extinction  Complete loss of species  Background extinction rate = 1/yr  Current extinction rate= 870/yr (another mass extinction)


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