Environmental Geology 1-26-16,1-28-16
Environmental Geology 1-26-16,1-28-16 103
Popular in Earth's Environments
Popular in Geology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Yates on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Edmund Perfect in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Earth's Environments in Geology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity The Biosphere Outline Commons Spheres Biosphere interaction Hierarchy of the Biosphere Populations Communities Ecosystems Role of the Individual. Why do individuals have values that lead to degradation of commons? Discounting the future (not thinking about the living conditions of future generations) Discounting by distance (not thinking about how pollution from our region affects a region further away) Sustainability movement: meeting the needs of today without reducing the quality of life in the future Promoting Sustainability by Paying True Costs. When market costs don’t reflect the true cost of a product or service it is a market failure Green Fees: the cost of products and services to include environmental costs The U.S. lags far behind most industrial nations in the use of Green Fees The reason for this, is to keep products cheap Low prices= more pollution Spheres of the Environment. The natural environment can be split into two parts Physical Environment: the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere Biological Environment: the Biosphere, The life of the biosphere inhabits and effects other spheres The Study of the Biosphere Interactions. The science of hoe organisms interact with each other and with physical environment is called? Ecology (“eco” means home, “logia” means study of) Ecological principals are valuable for assessing how people disturb biological systems and how to minimize this. If used in a broader term, ecology means to protest, concern about the environment, but it is commonly confused with Environmentalism. Hierarchy of the Biosphere. Organisms are composed of atoms, molecules, and cells grouped into populations. 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity Populations form communities which then form ecosystems Ecosystems create the biosphere Populations. Populations: group of organisms of the same species living in the same area Geographic Range: total area occupied by said population Populations tend to peak in abundance in the center of the range where conditions are prime Population Density. Unmanaged populations undergo a series of 5 different phases: Growth Overshoot Crash Stability Decline *Growth phase is typically exponential 99% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct (most of these predate humans) Abundance Control. Carrying Capacity is the maximum population that can be sustained in an area after a long period. Both physical and biological factors influence the maximum population size. Population constrained by supply of resources Law of Minimum: growth is limited by the resource in shortest supply, and takes only one aspect of the physical environment to limit population growth. Biological Controls on Abundance. Competition Niche: how an organism fits in its habitat Niche Overlap Competitive Exclusion Predation Symbiosis Predation: one species feeding off another Symbiosis: indicates the existence of a relationship between two different organisms Sym= together Biosis= life Predation and competition are both forms of Symbiosis Types of Symbiosis: Mutualism (both animals benefit) 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity Predation and Parasitism (One species benefits and the other is harmed) Commensalism (one species benefits and the other isn’t bothered or helped) Competition (both species are decremented by the continuing loss of a resource) Amensalism (One species is harmed and the other isn’t bothered or helped) 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity Communities, Ecosystems, Biodiversity Communities. A community consists of all the populations of different species Most natural communities contain thousands of species Community analysis is like structural analysis Most communities are OPEN- meaning population ranges overlap each other Some communities are CLOSED- meaning a sharp boundary separating clusters of species Community Succession. Mean the change of an environment over time Immigration od one species by replacing an old species that dies off Succession occurs because each community prepares the landscape for the next stage of species Succession is characterized by: Increasing biodiversity Increasing biomass Ecosystems. Is everything that exists in a particular environment (Merriam-Webster) Energy and matter are routed through an ecosystem by feeding relationships Biomass Pyramids. The first “feeding” level is the producers, which capture energy from non-living environment Consumers derive energy from chemical energy stored in the bodies of prey or plants Biomass is the weight of living matter Biomass decreases from each trophic level In general, 80-95% of the energy is lost as it goes between each level Ecosystem Productivity. Net Primary Productivity: is the rate at which producers create biomass. Nine Major Biomes. Biome is a large scale grouping that includes many communities/ ecosystems Biomes are largely determined by climate 7 kinds: Tundra Grasslands Savannah Desert Taiga 1/26/16-1/28/16 Geology 103 Biosphere/Communities, ecosystems, biodiversity Temperate Forest Tropical Forest Two aquatic biomes: Freshwater Marine Evolution and Diversification. Diversification of organisms over time through Natural Selection. Charles Darwin, 1859, formed the theory of evolution. It occurs due to individual variation. Gregory Mendel, genetic mutation, experimented on sweet peas Measuring Biodiversity. a common approach is to count the number of species per unit area a plot of species rich-ness versus area occupies is called a species area curve. A graph of this information can be used to: Estimate biodiversity in unexplored area Predict extinctions due to loss od habitat Types of Biodiversity Loss. Ecological extinction A species is too rare to impact ecosystem Extrapolation Species dies out in local area Community degradation Decline in the number of species in ecosystem Lower diversity= easier disruption Ecosystem health can be defined by indicator species Extinction Complete loss of species Background extinction rate = 1/yr Current extinction rate= 870/yr (another mass extinction)
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