Health Psychology Ch 1
Health Psychology Ch 1 Psyc 3128
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Maya Blair on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3128 at George Washington University taught by Thomas Nassif in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
CH 1 AN INTERDISCIPLINARY VIEW OF HEALTH Diverse Opinions of health 0 Can someone with MS still be considered healthy 2 Models Theories Physiological Health 0 A person s ability to physically perform his or her daily functions without limitations restrictions or impediments o Belief may derive from theories that propose that an individual s health is defined by the presence or absence of disease dysfunction or other abnormal biological changes in the body Holistic Health 0 NOT defined by a person s physical Biological functional state but ALSO their attitude quotf llff f about the illness and their overall mental magmah l brf mm and emotional state a eds o Influenced by physiological psychological Egg Eve2 emotional and social factors mm o Hippocrates Greek physician was the first i milsme was to acknowledge the connection between 9mm mm Psychological emotions and health 0 Might not be able to do much paralyzed but under this model one might still consider themselves healthy Determinants of Health Primary or contributing factors that influence health outcomes Some determinants of health are universal while others are specific to a culture or time Holistic Model 1 Physiological 2 Psychological 3 Emotional 4 Social Social Ecological Model 1 Individual physiology and behaviors diet exercise use of alcohol 2 Social environments including family and cultural traditions diet social customs belief systems 3 Physical environmental conditions clean water and safe neighborhoods 4 Health systems health care delivery organizations 5 Health policies regulations that promote or protect the health of communities 1 May include a spiritual wellbeing A BRIEF HISTORY OF HEALTH Health Practices in Early Civilizations 0 Understanding health through health practices of early civilizations health policy philosophy and medicine pharmacology and religion Health Policy 2000500 BCE gt Sanitation Ancient civilizations considered clean water and sanitation important health determinants 0 Ex Public and private drainage systems in Indus Valley Region to reduce exposure to contaminants gt Clean Water Water reservoirs in Indus Valley and Greek and Roman aqueducts to provide access to clean water for personal consumption We see that sanitation and clean water were most likely health determinants to these ancient civilizations Philosophy and Medicine Daoist Philosoohv 250 BCE Ancient Chinese philosophy stating that harmonic balance of yin and yang the environment and Qi an energy life force are essential determinants of health Ancient Eavptian Cultures 2600 BCE gt Mummification process and rituals suggest health was influenced by anatomical systems science and spiritual beliefs Ancient Greek Cultures 500 BCE gt Hippocrates humoral theory propose association between mind and body that affects health gt Aesculapian theory illnesses have spiritual origins and require spiritual intervention Iike placebo effect gt Cnidian theory illnesses associated with physical diseases and unrelated to mental spiritual or emotional wellbeing Pharmacology 0 Botany the study of plants and plant life to understand health 0 Materia medica the medicinal properties of plants to heal physical and mental illnesses o Materia medica used by many cultures including 0 Asian CuItures Chinese Indian 600 BCE o PreCqumbian CuItures Aztec Mayan 1400 CE 0 Native American Cultures gt1 000 cultures 1300 CE 0 Southern African CuItures Khoisan Zqu 1500 CE 0 We learn about these health practices through written records artwork such as sculptures and paintings along with other artifacts Religion 0 Over the centuries spirituality has been included as one of several factors that contribute to health 0 Beliefs about spirituality religion and their impact on health are well documented 0 Aesculapian 500 BCE Islamic 750 CE Native American 1300 CE and preCqumbian 1400 CE cultures demonstrated central role of spirituality and religious beliefs on health 0 Example also seen in Europe during Middle Ages 5001500 CE 0 Rome devastated by pandemics communicable disease affecting large groups of people in different regions 0 Successive wave of pandemics called plagues thought to be sign of God s punishment for sins of sufferers o Plagues of Justinian 541542 and 588 CE killed thousands and Haemorrhagic Plague 13471350 CE killed gt 25 million I Influenced by the religious doctrine of the time people embraced the view that the plagues and other diseases were caused by demons 0 Health policies were implemented to control outbreak during last plague Renaissance 0 Western Europe experienced a renaissance cultural rebirth o Prompted a move away from the belief that illnesses were a punishment for evil and marked the return to the scientific exploration of the human body Health Practices in the United States 0 Renaissance introduced a period of maritime exploration 0 Contagious diseases carried by colonizers threatened indigenous population and colonies o In 1800s major cities of new United States of America adopted health policies to protect citizens and ensure viability of colonies 0 Here we see how health policies became an important determinant of health outcomes for individuals as well as entire communities DEFINING HEALTH TODAY Early Holistic Concepts 0 MindBody Connection and Health 0 Freud proposed that physiological illnesses can have psychological causes 0 Psychosomatic Medicine examines the relationship between physiological psychological social and behavioral influences on an individual s health World Health Organization Concept of Health WHO 0 Integrates the physical emotional psychological and social determinants 0 WHO defines health as a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity 0 Health is more than just a disease includes emotional and mental health as factors in wellbeing 4 MODELS OF HEALTH AND WELLBEING 1 Biomedical gt lllness is a dysfunction of the body caused by microorganism resulting in disease or disability gt Overlooks contributions of emotional social and environmental factors on health 2 Biopsychosocial Model gt 20th century model that reintroduced a holistic theory of health gt Addresses physiological factors psychological influences and sociological factors 3 4 gt Supports the link of mind and body Hippocrates and Freud gt The combination of factors contribute to overall wellbeing and health outcome 0 Example Emotions such as stress impact physiological health by affecting the immune system and by influencing health behaviors CHALLENGES I Biological determinants at the core too biocentered o Psychological and sociological determinants are seen as addons 0 At it s core it s really a biological model I Overlooks physical environmental factors 0 Air and water quality toxic waste sites or other pollutants I Ignores qualityof life and spirituality 0 Not assessed independent of psychosocial factors Wellness Model gt Spirituality 0 Individuals perspective on the meaning of life and the impact of their values on their overall wellbeing gt Quality of Life 0 An individual s perceived satisfaction with their life 0 Influenced by both psychological and physiological states Social Ecological Model gt The most broad of the models gt 5 Major Determinants of Health the last three are unique to this model 1 The individual biology and behavior Social environment created by family community and cultural practices thsical environment housing conditions sanitation pollution crime and violence Health systems health care delivery organizations that provide access to care Health policy regulations that promote or protect the health of individuals in the community Detern nant WerN Factors individual Biology genetics amp lifestyle Social Environment family a cultural practices Cultural practices traditions learned behaviors PhYSlCGl EHVll39Onment Housing conditions sanitation pollution Airwater quality rates of crime violence Health Systems Access to care affordable care quality health care Health Policy Government regulated or restricted behaviors mandated health plans SpiritualReligious Beliefs Belief systemspractices governing lifestyle Factors that Influence Health in an Ecological Model Determinant of Health Factors Biological Genetics Immune system Nutrition Physiology Gender Age Psychological Coping strategies Personality Pessimismoptimism Risktaking behaviors Response to stress Sociological Cultural beliefs Diet Ethnicity Socioeconomic class Social support networks Concept of health Spiritual beliefs Environmental Airwater quality Neighborhood safety Neighborhood cleanliness Health Systems Accessible health facilities Health insurance Medical specialists Emergency care options Affordable care Treatment options Longterm care options Mental health care providers Health Policy Mandated health plan Watersewage disposal systems Safety legislations Workplace safety regulations Air and water quality Caregiver stress the physiological effects are just as real as the emotional ones
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