Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Notes
Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 101012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Strott on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101012 at Towson University taught by Geri Willen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
PYSCHOLOGY 101 Chapter 1: What is Psychology? A. Defining Psychology - Scientific study of behavior and mental processes - It’s a science - How behavior and mental processes are affected by and organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment B. Psych’s Main Goals 1. Describe (research psychology) 2. Explain (research psychology) 3. Predict (research psychology) 4. Change/modify (applied psychology) C. Psych’s Past 1. Greek Philosophy Projection (Freudian Concept) 2. Birth of ‘Modern’ Psych - Take information about - Wilhelm Wundt yourself and project it onto - William James paper - Edward Titchener - Project what you don’t know - G. Stanley Hall about yourself on other - John Watson people D. Contemporary Psych Ph. D: psychologist Behaviorism B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Operant Conditioning MD.: psychiatrist Cognitive Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Social-Cultural Albert Bandura (1926- present) IMPORTANT PEOPLE: Wilhelm Wundt 1832-1920 Founder of birth of Modern Psychology Leipzig, Germany (1879) à opened first lab of psychology STRUCTURALISM William James 1842-1910 American Psychologist Introduced the idea of STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS Wrote textbooks FUNCTIONALISM Edward Titchener 1867-1927 Student of William James First to establish psychology in university (Cornell) G. Stanley Hall 1841-1924 Established psychology at Johns Hopkins American Psychological Association John Watson 1878-1958 BEHAVIORISM “NOW” Six Different Approaches: Biological Behavioral Cognitive Sociocultural Psychodynamic Humanistic BIOLOGICAL Everything we say/do/feel is based on biology Neurotransmitters Enzymes BEHAVIORAL B.F. Skinner Consequence to a behavior à depending on a consequence, behavior will either go away/occur again Environmentally determined Operant Conditioning COGNITIVE Jean Piaget Mental Processing Conscious decisionsà THINK How we think and how thinking changes Emphasizes mental processing in perception, memory, language, problem solving, etc. SOCIOCULTURAL Albert Bandura Focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual Society Conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals Aka social cognitive Observational Learning PSYCHODYNAMIC Three Central Points: 1. Childhood experiences determine adult personality (behavior and mental processing) 2. Unconscious mental processes influence personality (behavior and mental processing) 3. Conflict (superego, id, and ego) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) First to bring “Three Points” to Psychology “Psychoanalysis” - Freud’s theory of personality development and type of treatment - Emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Karen Horney (1885-1952) First feminist criticism of Freud’s theory Emphasizes women’s positive qualities and self-evaluation (More positive than Freud) Carl Jung (1875-1961) Student of Freud Collective unconscious and archetypes (More positive than Freud) HUMANISTIC Self-Actualize Living up to your full potential; be the best you can be “The Third Force” 1960 Humanistic Approach presented at APA meeting Opposite of psychodynamic Freedom of choice; freedom of freewill People make their own choices Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Unconditional positive regard (In treatment) Each person is valued, accepted, and treated positive of behavior Conditions of worth The standards that the individual must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Hierarchy of Needs Motivation to develop one’s full potential Self-Esteem (Top/ Last) Belonging Love Safety Biological (Bottom/ First)
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