Week 4 outline notes
Week 4 outline notes HCHS 111
Popular in Medical Terminology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gilbert Devlin on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HCHS 111 at University of New Mexico taught by roselli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Medical Terminology in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of New Mexico.
Reviews for Week 4 outline notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/03/16
Anatomy and physiology of the skeletal system Hey guys! Highlighted areas Contain Important info, the Underlined words are vocab from the book. Bones are organs they carry their own blood supply, nerves, and lymphatic vessels Bones connect to form the skeleton The skeleton protects vital organs and stores minerals the site of blood cell production is Bone Marrow A joint is the place where two bones meet and are held together by ligaments o Gives flexibility to skeleton Bones Bones/osseous tissue is one of the hardest materials in the body Ossification is formed from gradual process beginning before birth Fetal skeleton is formed from cartilage model o Cartilage is replaced by osteoblasts- immature bone cells o Osteoblasts mature into osteocytes in adult bones Strong bones are dependent on an adequate supply of minerals, calcium and phosphorus Four categories based on shape o Long bones are longer than wide Ex: femur and humerus o Short bones are roughly as long as wide Ex: carpals and tarsals o Flat bones are plate-like shaped bones Ex: sternum, scapula, and pelvis o Irregular bones have a very irregular shape such as vertebrae The majority of bones in the body are long bones o Have central shaft/diaphysis that widens at each end called an epiphysis o Each epiphysis is covered by a layer of cartilage called articular cartilage to prevent bone from rubbing directly on bone o The remaining surface of each bone is covered with a thin connective tissue membrane called periosteum, which contains numerous blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels o Dense and hard exterior surface bone called cortical/compact bone o Cancellous/spongy found inside bone – has spaces in it, giving it a sponge-like appearance o Spaces contain red bone marrow, which manufactures blood cells and is found in some parts of all bones o Center of diaphysis contains an open canal called the medullary cavity which contains yellow bone marrow (mainly fat) Bones have projections o Some are rounded and smooth to eloquent with another bone in the joint o Others are rough to provide muscles with attachment points o process is a general term for any bony projection Specific terms describe different shapes and locations of various processes o Head – large, smooth, ball-shaped end on long bone - May be separated from shaft of bone by a narrow area called neck o Condyle – smooth, rounded portion at the end of a bone o Epicondyle– located above or on a condyle o Trochanter – large, rough process for attachment of muscle o Tubercle– small, rough process - Provides attachment for tendons and muscles o Tuberosity – large, rough process - Provides attachment for tendons and muscles Bones have hollow regions or depressions o Sinus– hollow cavity within the bone o Foramen – smooth, round opening for nerves and blood vessels o Foosa – shallow cavity or depression on surface of bone o Fissure– slit-type opening Skeleton Human skeleton has two divisions o axial skeleton o appendicular skeleton Axial skeleton (bones in the head, neck, spine, chest, and trunk) protects many internal organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs o Head or skull is divided into two parts - cranium - facial bones - Surrounds and protects the brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, and oral cavity - Muscles for chewing and moving the head are attached to cranial bones - Cranium encases the brain and consists of the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, sphenal, occipital bones o Facial bones surround the mouth, nose, and eyes and includes mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, vomer, palatine, nasal, and lacrimal bones o The point of attachment for swallowing and speech muscles is the Hyoid bone - Single u-shaped bone suspended in neck between the mandible and larynx o Trunk consists of the Vertebral column, sternum and rib cage o Vertebral or spinal column is dived into five sections: cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebra, sacrum, and coccyx - Between each pair of vertebrae is an intrevertible disk composed of fibrous cartilage to provide a cushion between vertebrae Appendicular skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle, and lower extremities– the bones that form the appendages or limbs o Pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula - Attaches upper extremities (arm) to the axial skeleton - Articulates with the sternum anteriorly and vertebral column posteriorly o Upper extremity includes the humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges o Pelvic girdle/os coxae/immominate, contains the ilium, ischium, and pubis - Articulates with the sacrum posteriorly - Attaches lower extremity (leg) to the axial skeleton o Lower extremity includes the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges Joints Formed when two or more bones meet called articulation Three types of joints based on the amount of movement allowed between bones o Synovial joints are freely moving joints - Shoulder, knee, and elbow o Cartilaginous joints allow slight movement, but keeps bones firmly in place by solid piece of cartilage - Pubic symphysis o Fibrous joints allow almost no movement - Ends of bones joined by thick fibrous tissue – may fuse into solid bone - Skull sutures Most joints are synovial joints o Enclosed by elastic joint capsule o Joint capsule is lined with synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint o Ends of bones in joint are covered by a layer of articular cartilage o Very tough, but still flexible to withstand high levels of stress, act as shock absorber, and can prevent bones from rubbing together Example of synovial joint is the ball-and-socket joint found in the shoulder and hip o Ball rotating in socket allows for wide range of motion o Bands of strong connective tissue (called ligaments) bind bones together at joint o Some synovial joints contain a bursa - Sac-like structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane - Found between bones and ligaments or tendons - Function is to reduce friction - Common bursa locations are in the elbow, knee, and shoulder joints Skeletal system pathology Medical specialties Chiropractic – healthcare profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of malalignment conditions of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health o Healthcare professional is a chiropractor Orthopedics – branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the musculoskeletal system o Also called orthopedic surgery o Physician is a orthopedists or orthopedic surgeon Orthotics – healthcare profession specializing in making orthopedic appliances such as braces and splints o Person skilled in making and adjusting these appliances is an orthoptist Podiatry – healthcare profession specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the feet and lower legs o Healthcare professional is a podiatrist Prosthetics – healthcare profession specializing in making artificial body parts o Person skilled in making and adjusting prostheses is a prosthetist Signs and symptoms Arthralgia - joint pain Bursitis– inflammation of a bursa Callus – mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during its healing Chondromalacia– softening of the cartilage Crepitation– noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis o Also called crepitus Ostealgia – bone pain Osteomyelitis – inflammation of bone and bone marrow Synovitis– inflammation of synovial membrane Fractures Closed – fracture in which there is no open skin wound o Also called a simple fracture Coles – a common type of wrist fracture Comminuted – fracture in which the bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into many small pieces or fragments Compound– fracture in which the skin has been broken through to the fracture o Also called an open fracture Compression– fracture involving loss of height of a vertebral body o It may be the result of trauma, but in older people, especially women, it may be caused by a condition like osteoporosis fracture – a broken bone fracture in which there is an incomplete break- greenstick fracture o One side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent o This type of fracture is commonly found in children due to their softer and more pliable bone structure Impacted_ – fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other Oblique_ – fracture at an angle to the bone Pathologic– fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone Spiral– fracture in which the fracture line spirals around the shaft of the bone o Can be caused by a twisting injury and is often slower to heal than other types of fractures Stress – a slight fracture caused by repetitive low-impact forces, like running, rather than a single forceful impact Transverse_ – complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone Bones Chondroma_ – a tumor, usually benign, that forms in cartilage Ewing’s Sarcoma_ – malignant growth found in the shaft of long bones that spreads throughout the periosteum o Removal is the treatment of choice because this tumor will metastasize or spread to other organs Exostosis_ – a bone spur Myeloma_ – a tumor that forms in bone marrow tissue Osteochondroma___– a tumor, usually benign, that consists of both bone and cartilage tissue Osteogenic Sarcoma_ – the most common type of bone cancer o Usually begins in osteocytes found at the ends of long bones Osteomalacia– softening of the bones caused by a deficiency of calcium o It is thought to be caused by insufficient sunlight and vitamin D in children Osteopathy__ – a general term for bone disease Osteoporosis_– decrease in bone mass producing a thinning and weakening of the bone with resulting fractures o The bone becomes more porous, especially in the spine and pelvis Paget’s Disease_ – a fairly common metabolic disease of the bone from unknown causes o It usually attacks middle-aged and older adults and is characterized by bone destruction and deformity o Named for Sir James Paget, a British surgeon Rickets_– deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood that results in bone deformities, especially bowed legs Spinal column Ankylosing Spondylitis_ – inflammatory spinal condition resembling rheumatoid arthritis and results in gradual stiffening and fusion of the vertebrae o More common in men than women Herniated Nucleus Pulpous_ – herniation of protrusion of an intervertebral disk o Also called herniated disk or ruptured disk o May require surgery Kyphosis – abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine o Also known as hunchback or humpback Lordosis_ – abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine o Also known as swayback Scoliosis___ – abnormal lateral curvature of the spine Spina Bifida___ – congenital anomaly occurring when a vertebra fails to fully form around the spinal cord Spinal Stenosis______ – narrowing of the spinal canal causing pressure on the cord and nerves Spondylolisthesis_______ – the forward sliding of a lumbar vertebra over the vertebra below it Spondylosis_ – specifically refers to ankylosing of the spin, but commonly used in reference to any degenerative condition of the vertebral column Whiplash– cervical muscle and ligament sprain or strain as a result of a sudden movement forward and backward of the head and neck o Can occur as a result of a rear-end auto collision Joints -Bunion _ – inflammation of the bursa of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (base of the big toe) -Dislocation – occurs when the bones in a joint are displaced from their normal alignment and the ends of the bones are no longer in contact Osteoarthritis__– arthritis resulting in degeneration of the bones and joints, especially those bearing weight o Results in bone rubbing against bone Rheumatoid Arthritis_– chronic form of arthritis with inflammation of the joints, swelling, stiffness, pain, and changes in the cartilage that can result in crippling deformities o Considered to be an autoimmune disease Sprain___ – damage to the ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching, but no dislocation of the joint or fracture of the bone Subluxation___ – an incomplete dislocation o The joint alignment is disrupted but the ends of the bones remain in contact Systemic Lupus_ – chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of connective tissue affecting many systems that may include joint pain and arthritis o May be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis Talipes_ – congenital deformity causing misalignment of the ankle joint and foot o Also referred to as a clubfoot Skeletal system diagnostic procedures Diagnostic imaging -Arthrogram – x-ray record of a joint o Usually taken after the joint has been injected by a contrast medium Arthrography____ – process of x-raying a joint o Usually after injection of a contrast medium into the joint space Bone Scan_ – nuclear medicine procedure in which the patient is given a radioactive dye and then scanning equipment is used to visualize bones o It is especially useful in identifying stress fractures, observing progress of treatment for osteomyelitis and locating cancer metastases to the bone Dual Energy Absorptiometry___ – measurement of bone density using low-dose x-ray for the purpose of detecting osteoporosis Myelography_______ – study of the spinal column after injecting opaque contrast material o Particularly useful in identifying herniated nucleus pulposus pinching a spinal nerve Radiography____ – diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rays to study the internal structure of the body o Especially useful for visualizing bones and joints Endoscopic procedures Arthroscope_ – instrument used to view inside a joint Arthroscopy__ – examination of the interior of a joint y entering the joint with an arthroscope Skeletal system therapeutic procedures Medical treatments -Arthrocentesis – involves the insertion of a needle into the joint cavity in order to remove or aspirate fluid o May be done to remove excess fluid from a joint or to obtain fluid for examination Orthotic_– orthopedic appliance, such as a brace or splint, used to prevent or correct deformities Prosthesis_– artificial device used as a substitute for a body part that is either congenitally missing or absent as a result of an accident or disease o An example would be an artificial leg Surgical procedures Amputation_ – partial or complete removal of a limb for a variety of reasons, including tumors, gangrene, intractable pain, crushing injury, or uncontrollable infection Arthroclasia_ – to forcibly break loose a fused joint while the patient is under anesthetic Fusion is usually caused by the buildup of scar tissue or adhesions Arthrodesis_– procedure to stabilize a joint by fusing the bones together Arthroscopic surgery_– performing a surgical procedure while using an arthroscope to view the internal structure, such as a joint Arthrotomy_ – surgical procedure that cuts into a joint capsule Bone Graft_ – piece of bone taken from the patient used to take the place of a removed bone or a bony defect at another site Bunionectomy__ – removal of a bursa at the joint of the great toe Bursectomy___ – surgical removal of a bursa Chondrectomy______ – surgical removal of cartilage Chondroplasty__– surgical repair of cartilage Craniotomy___ – surgical procedure that cuts into the skull Laminectomy_– removal of the vertebral posterior arch to correct severe back problems and pain caused by compression of a spinal nerve Osteoclasia__– surgical procedure involving the intentional breaking of a bone to correct a deformity Osteotome – instrument used to cut bone Osteotomy___ – surgical procedure that cuts into a bone Percutaneous Discectomy_ – a thin catheter tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk through the skin and the herniated or ruptured disk material is sucked out or a laser is used to vaporize it Spinal Fusion_ – surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebra o This may be done for several reasons, including correction for a herniated disk Synovectomy__ – surgical removal of the synovial membrane Total Hip arthroplasty____ – surgical reconstruction of a hip by implanting a prosthetic or artificial hip joint o Also called a total hip replacement (THR) Total Knee arthroplasty – surgical reconstruction of a knee joint by implanting a prosthetic knee joint Also called total knee replacement (TKR) Fracture care Cast__ – application of a solid material to immobilize an extremity or portion of the body as a result of a fracture, dislocation, or severe injury o It may be made of plaster of Paris or fiberglass Fixation___ – procedure to stabilize a fractured bone while it heals o External fixation includes casts, splints, and pins inserted through the skin o Internal fixation includes pins, plates, rods, screws, and wires that are applied during an open reduction Reduction_ – correcting a fracture by realigning the bone fragments o Closed reduction is doing this manipulation without entering the body o Open reduction is the process of making a surgical incision at the site of the fracture to do the reduction This is necessary when bony fragments need to be removed or internal fixation such as plates or pins are required Traction – applying a pulling force on a fractured or dislocated limb or the vertebral column in order to restore normal alignment Skeletal system pharmacology Bone reabsorption inhibiters– conditions that result in weak and fragile bones, such as osteoporosis and Paget’s disease, are improved by medications that reduce the absorption of bones Calcium Supplements and Vitamin D– maintaining high blood levels of calcium in association with vitamin D helps maintain bone density Used to treat osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets Cortico Steroids– a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti- inflammatory properties It is particularly useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories– a large group of drugs that provide mild pain relief and anti- inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis Skeletal system abbreviations AE__ – above elbow AK_ – above knee BDT– bone density testing BE – below elbow BK – below knee BMD_ – bone mineral density C1, C2, etc.– first cervical vertebra, second cervical vertebra, etc. CA– calcium DJD– degenerative joint disease DXA– dual-energy absorptiometry FX, Fx__ – fracture HNP__ – herniated nucleus pulposus JRA__ – juvenile rheumatoid arthritis L1, L2, etc. – first lumbar vertebra, second lumbar vertebra, etc. LE – lower extremity LLE_ – left lower extremity LUE – lower upper extremity NSAID_ – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug OA – osteoarthritis ORIF_ – open reduction-internal fixation ORTH, ORTHO – orthopedics RA– rheumatoid arthritis RLE – right lower extremity RUE – right upper extremity SLE – systemic lupus erythematosus T1, T2, ETC. – first thoracic vertebra, second thoracic vertebra, etc. -THA – total hip arthroplasty THR – total hip replacement TKA– total knee arthroplasty -TKR – total knee replacement UE – upper extremity Anatomy and physiology of the muscular system Muscles are bundles of parallel Muscle Tissue Fibers o As fibers contract (shorten in length), movement of or within body is produced o May bring two bones closer together, push food through digestive system, or pump blood through blood vessels Muscles also hold body erect and generates heat Types of muscles Three types of muscle tissue o Skeletal muscle o Smooth_ muscle o Cardiac_ muscle Muscles may be either voluntary or involuntary o Voluntary mean that we consciously choose which muscles to contract, how long and how hard to contract Skeletal muscles of the leg o Involuntary are under control of the subconscious regions of the brain Smooth muscles found in internal organs and cardiac muscles Skeletal muscle Directly or indirectly attached to bones Produce voluntary movement of skeleton Also called Striated Muscle because of its striped appearance under the microscope Wrapped in layers of fibrous connective tissue called fascia Tapers at each end of the skeletal muscle to form a very strong Tendon o Tendons then insert into the periosteum covering the bone to anchor the muscle to the bone o Stimulated by Motor Neurons The point at which motor nerve contacts the muscle fiber is called the Myoneural Junction_ Smooth muscle (also called Visceral Muscle is associated with internal organs o Lacks striations o Found in the walls of hollow organs (stomach, respiratory airways, and blood vessels) o Responsible for involuntary muscle action (churning food, constricting blood vessels, uterine contractions) associated with the movement of internal organs Cardiac muscle/Myocardium makes up the walls of the heart o Each involuntary contraction causes the heart to pump blood out of its chambers and through blood vessels Naming skeletal muscles Know These Name of muscle often reflects its location, origin and insertion, size, action, fiber direction, or number of attachment points Location – rectus abdominis means straight (rectus) abdominal muscle Origin and insertion – sternocleidomastoid named for two origins (stern/o for sternum and cleid/o for clavicle) and a single insertion (mastoid process) Size – gluteus maximus means rump area (gluteus) and large (maximus) Action – flexor carpi and extensor carpi muscles named because they produce flexion and extension at the wrist Fiber direction – external oblique muscle is an abdominal muscle whose fibers run at an oblique angle Number of attachment points – bi means two; refers to the muscle’s two heads or connection points Skeletal muscle actions - Skeletal muscles are attached to two different bones and overlap a joint When a muscle contracts, two bones move (usually not equally) - The Origin is the less movable of the two bones Considered to be the starting point of the muscle - The Insertion is the more moveable of the two bones Considered to be where the muscle ends - The action_ is the type of movement a muscle produces - Muscles often arranged around joints in Antagonistic pairs (they produce opposite actions) Ex: one muscle will bend the joint while its antagonist straightens the joint Muscular system pathology Medical specialties Kinesiology– the science that studies movement, how it is produced, and the muscles involved Signs and symptoms adhesion_ – scar tissue forming in the fascia surrounding a muscle, making it difficult to stretch the muscle _Atonia_ – the lack of muscle tone atrophy – poor muscle development as a result of muscle disease, nervous system disease, or lack of use o Commonly referred to as muscle wasting Bradykinesia_– having slow movements Contracture – abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia, making it difficult to stretch the muscle Dyskinesia_ – having difficult or painful movement Dystonia_ – having abnormal muscle tone Hyperkinesia__ – having an excessive amount of movement Hypertonia______ – having excessive muscle tone Hypertrophy__– increase in muscle bulk as a result of use, as with lifting weights Hypokinesia_ – having an insufficient amount of movement Hypotonia – having insufficient muscle tone Intermittent Claudication_ – attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by ischemia of the muscles (typically the calf muscles) brought on by walking even very short distances Myalgia – muscle pain Myasthenia___ – muscle weakness Myotonia_ – muscle tone Spasm_ – sudden, involuntary strong muscle contraction Tendynia– tendon pain Muscles Fasciitis – inflammation of fascia Fibromyalgia – condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and soft tissue Lateral Epicondylitis – inflammation of the muscle attachment to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow o Often caused by gripping strongly o Commonly called tennis elbow Muscular Dystrophy– inherited disease causing a progressive muscle degeneration, weakness, and atrophy Myopathy – a general term for muscle disease Myorrhexis – tearing a muscle Polymyositis– the simultaneous inflammation of two or more muscles Pseudohypertrothic muscular dystrophy– a type of inherited muscular dystrophy in which the muscle tissue is gradually replaced by fatty tissue, making the muscle look strong o Also called Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy Torticollis – severe neck spasms pulling the head to one side o Commonly called wryneck or a crick in the neck Tendons, muscles, and/or ligaments Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – repetitive motion disorder with pain caused by compression of the finger flexor tendons and median nerve as they pass through the carpal tunnel of the wrist Ganglion Cyst_– cyst that forms on tendon sheath, usually on hand, wrist, or ankle Repetitive Motion Disorder – group of chronic disorders involving the tendon, muscle, joint, and nerve damage, resulting from the tissue being subjected to pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements for prolonged periods Rotator Cuff Injury – the high degree of flexibility at the shoulder joint puts the rotator cuff at risk for strain and tearing Strain – damage to the muscle, tendons, or ligaments due to overuse or overstretching Tendinitis – inflammation of a tendon Muscular system diagnostic procedures Clinical laboratory test Creatine phosphokinase– muscle enzyme found in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Blood levels become elevated in disorders such as heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies Additional diagnostic procedures Deep Tendon Reflexes_ – muscle contraction in response to a stretch caused by striking the muscle tendon with a reflex hammer o Test used to determine if muscles are responding properly Electromyogram– the hard-copy record produced by electromyography Electromyography– study and record of the strength and quality of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation Muscle Biopsy– removal of muscle tissue for pathological examination Muscular system therapeutic procedures Surgical procedures Carpal Tunnel release_ – surgical cutting of the ligament in the wrist to relieve nerve pressure caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, which can result from repetitive motion such as typing Fasciotomy_– a surgical procedure that cuts into fascia Inyoplasty_– a surgical procedure to repair a muscle Myorrhaphy_ – to suture a muscle Tendoplasty_– a surgical procedure to repair a tendon Tendoplasty– a surgical procedure that cuts into a tendon Tenodesis – surgical procedure to stabilize a joint by anchoring down the tendons of the muscles that move the joint Tenoplasty – a surgical procedure to repair a tendon Tenorrhaphy – to suture a tendon Muscular system pharmacology Skeletal Muscle Relaxants– medication to relax skeletal muscles in order to reduce muscle spasms o Also called antispasmodics Muscular system abbreviations CTS– carpal tunnel syndrome CPK – creatine phosphokinase DTR– deep tendon reflex EMG – electromyogram IM– intramuscular -MD – muscular dystrophy
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'