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GEOL 110 (NOTES FROM 2-3-2016)

by: Elizabeth Rubio

GEOL 110 (NOTES FROM 2-3-2016) GEOL 110

Marketplace > California State University Long Beach > GEOL 110 > GEOL 110 NOTES FROM 2 3 2016
Elizabeth Rubio
Long Beach State

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Klaus Hagedorn
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Klaus Hagedorn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
CHAPTER 2  Internal processes have incredibly important impacts of the surface of the Earth ­Responsible for continents and ocean basins ­Ocean’s currents and distribution of heat carried by seawater controlled by  configuration of continents and ocean basins  ­Responsible for regional landforms Earth is layered and dynamic ­Internal structure of Earth: ~By composition and density ~By Physical properties  The outer structure of the Earth is the Crust. The Mantle is the inner core that in beneath the crust, which is a  high density rock. It is  composed with Magnesium and more.  Earth’s Structure ­Inner Core ~Solid ~1,300km (808 mi.) in thickness ~High Temperature ~Composed of iron (90% by weight ) Lithosphere  ­Cool, strong outermost layer of Earth ­Crust embedded on top Asthenosphere ­Below lithosphere ­Hot, slowly flowing layer of weak rock Continents VS. Ocean Basins ­Ocean crust is less dense and thinner ­Ocean crust is young (< 200millions years old) Convection ­Earth’s internal heat causes magma to heat up and become less dense ­Less dense magma rises ­Cool magma falls back downward ­Similar to a LAVA LAMP Why is convection similar to a lava lamp ?: Because the less dense magma rises when it is in  the bottom or closer to the heat source Large­scale geologic processes that deform Earth’s lithosphere Produce landforms like ocean basins, continents, and mountains Processes are Driven by forces within Earth.  Lithosphere is broken into pieces ­Lithospheric plates or tectonic plates Plate Tectonics ­Plates move relative to one another ­Plates are created and destroyed ­Boundaries between lithospheric plates are geologically active areas  ­Responsible for many of the most devastating natural hazard, like earthquakes and  volcanoes.  Seafloor Spreading ­Explained mechanism for plate tectonics  ­At mid­ocean ridges new crust is added to edges of lithospheric plates ~Continents are carried along plates ­Crust is destroyed along other plate edges ~Subduction zones Earth remains constant, never growing or shrinking  Sinking plates generate volcanoes and earthquakes ­Sinking ocean plates are wet and cold ­Plates come in contact with how asthenosphere ­Plates melt to generate magma ­Magma rises to make volcanoes ~Volcanic arcs ­Earthquakes occur along the path of the descending plate  ~Wadati­Benioff zones Plate tectonics is unifying theory ­Explains a variety of phenomena ~Evolutionary change ~How the Earth works ~Direction of plate movement ~Similarities among fossils  ~Changes in Earth’s magnetism Convection is likely drives plate tectonics 


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