Bio 101, Chapter 1 notes
Bio 101, Chapter 1 notes Bio 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Kelly on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 101 at University of Rhode Island taught by Dr. Jessica Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
BIO 101 – CHAPTER 1 NOTES Section 1.1 – What Does It Mean to Say That Something Is Alive? Organism: a life-form; made up of at least one cell Five fundamental characteristics that all organisms share: 1. Energy: organisms acquire and use energy in order to stay alive and reproduce a. Plants absorb sunlight; animals ingest food 2. Cells: made up of membrane-bound units; membrane regulates the passage of materials between exterior and interior spaces 3. Information: process hereditary, or genetic, information (genes); respond to information from the environment and adjust to maintain homeostasis 4. Replication: all organisms have the ability to replicate 5. Evolution: organisms are the product of evolution; populations continue to evolve Section 1.2 – The Cell Theory Theory: explanation for a phenomena; observation that is supported by a wide body of evidence Cell: organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane and contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution Cell theory: all organisms are made of cells and cells come from preexisting cells; created by Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek Hypothesis: a testable statement to explain phenomena or observations Prediction: measurable or observable results that must be correct if a hypothesis is valid Louis Pasteur: used glass flasks with the same amount of nutrient broth and boiled both; straight neck flask was exposed to preexisting cells (bacteria and fungi) after sterilization; preexisting cells were trapped on the swan neck flask and did not make it to the broth; result inconsistent with the hypothesis of spontaneous generation; concluded that cells arise from other cells Section 1.3 – The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Evolution: change in characteristics of a population over time; occurs when heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction Theory of Evolution: made of two important claims by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace; two components 1. Species are related by common ancestry 2. Characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation; called descent with modification Population: a group of the same species living in the same place at the same time Natural Selection: idea proposed by Darwin and Wallace; has two components 1. Individuals within a population have varying characteristics that are heritable (traits that can be passed down to offspring) 2. Certain versions of these traits help individuals survive better or reproduce more than other traits; these traits then become more popular over time Natural selection acts on individuals while evolution occurs in populations. Artificial Selection: changes that occur in populations when humans select certain individuals to produce more offspring Fitness: ability of an individual to produce offspring; high fitness means more surviving offspring Adaptation: traits that increase fitness of an individual The cell theory and the theory of evolution provide two central ideas: 1. The cell is the fundamental structural unit in al organisms 2. All species are related by common ancestry and changed over time due to natural selection Section 1.4 – The Tree of Life Speciation: natural selection caused populations of one species to diverge and form new species over time; two important implications 1. All species come from preexisting species 2. All species trace their ancestry to a single common ancestor Tree of life: family tree of organisms Phylogeny: genealogical relationships Carl Woese and colleagues analyzed rRNA to understand which organisms are closely related or distantly related. The ribonucleotide sequences in rRNA can change during the course of evolution. If the theory of evolution is correct, then rRNA sequences would be very similar in closely related organisms and vice versa for organisms that are distantly related. Domains: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya Eukaryotes: mostly multi-cellular; have a nucleus Prokaryotes: majority of bacteria and archaea; do not have a nucleus; unicellular Taxonomy: naming and classifying organisms Section 1.5 – Doing Biology Two step process to recognizing a hypothesis: Step 1: State the hypothesis accurately and list predictions it makes Step 2: Design an experimental study able to test the predictions Null hypothesis: specifies what should be observed when the hypothesis being tested is not correct What to have in an experiment: Control group: checks for factors other than the one being tested that might affect the experiment Keep experiment conditions as consistent as possible Repeat the test
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