CDFS 111 Chapter 2 and 3 notes
CDFS 111 Chapter 2 and 3 notes CDFS 111
Long Beach State
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFS 111 at California State University Long Beach taught by Lynda Grosso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
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It is composed with Magnesium and more Earth s Structure lnner Core Solid 1300km 808 mi in thickness High Temperature Composed of iron 90 by weight Lithosphere Cool strong outermost layer of Earth Crust embedded on top Asthenosphere Below lithosphere Hot slowly flowing layer of weak rock Continents VS Ocean Basins Ocean crust is less dense and thinner Ocean crust is young lt 200millions years old Convection Earth s internal heat causes magma to heat up and become less dense Less dense magma rises Cool magma falls back downward Similar to a LAVA LAMP far LUan l SW Lf wm r m m i 3 ivmwwrwm 1 a K 4 CDFS 1 11 Grosso 1272016 Development of a child begins after conception Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA The molecule that has the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins This is at the heart of each cell Chromosome 1 of the 46 molecules of DNA in 23 pairs that each cell of the human body has and that together has all of the genes Other species have more or less chromosomes Gene A section of a chromosome and the basic unit for the transmission of heredity consisting of a string of chemicals that are instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins Usually located at a particular place on a pair Protein is composed of a sequence of chemicals a long string of amino acids which are the building blocks of life Allele Any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur Many alleles can have differences that can be minor EX shape of an eyebrow Genome The entire set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species Each person not identical twins has a slightly different genome however it is 999 the same for any two persons Our genetic similarities far outweigh our differences Gamete A reproductive cell Which is a sperm or ovum that can make a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote Contains 23 chromosomes half of a person s 46 chromosomes Zygote Single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes a sperm and an ovum Genotype An organism s whole genetic inheritance or genetic material In 22 of 23 of the chromosome pairs each chromosome is closely matched to each other Each of these 44 Chromosomes is called an autosome to indicate that it is independent of the 23rd pair of chromosomes which are called the sex chromosomes 23rd pair The chromosome pair that in humans determines the zygote s and hence the person s sex The other 22 pairs are autosomes the same whether the 23rd pair is for a male or a female XX A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of 2 xshaped chromosomes one which from the mother and father XX zygote become females XY A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of an Xshaped chromosome from the mother and Y shape from the father XY zygotes become males Monozygotic MZ twins Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development known as identical twins Other monozygotic multiple births like triplets and more can occur too Dizygotic DZ twins Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time AKA fraternal twins Infertility The inability to conceive after at least a year of trying to do so via sexual intercourse lowest infertility rates are at ages 1825 who have avoided drugs and STDSTI and who live in medically advanced nations Highest rates are couples over 35 years old in subsaharan Africa Assisted Reproductive Technology ART techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy In vitro fertilization Fertilization that occurs outside a woman s body the procedure involves mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman s ovary If the combination makes a zygote it is inserted to the woman s uterus where the implantation and development of a baby can occur Phenotype The observable characteristics of a person including appearance personality intelligence and all other traits Polygenic Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes Multifactorial Referring to a trait that is affected by many factors both genetic and environmental Human Genome Project An international effort to map the full human genetic code This effort was essentially completed in 2001 though analysis is ongoing Additive Gene a gene that has many alleles each of which contributes to the final phenotype like skin color or height Dominant Recessive pattern the interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele dominant allele more than the other recessive allele Carrier A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype Such as an unexpressed genes occurs in half of the carrier s gametes and thus is passed on to half of the carrier s children who will most likely be carriers as well Generally only when such a gene is inherited from both parents does the characteristic appear in the phenotype Xlinked Referring to a gene carried on the XChromosome If a boy inherits an xlinked recessive trait from his mom he expresses that trait due to the Y from his dad has no counteracting gene Girls are more likely to be carriers of xlinked traits but are less likely to express them Heritability A statistic that indicates what o of the variation in a particular context and era can be traced to genes Mosaicism A condition in which an organism has a mixture of cells some normal and some with an odd number of chromosomes or a series of missing genes Down Syndrome A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46 with three rather than two chromosomes at the 21 st position People Down Syndrome typically have distinctive characteristics including unusual facial features heart abnormalities and language difficulties Fragile X Syndrome A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosomes seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules The cause is a single gene that has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet Most common form of inherited mental disability Genetic Counseling Consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive Phenylketonuria PKU A genetic disorder in which a child s body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine The resulting buildup of phenylalanine in body fluids causes brain damage progressive mental retardation and other symptoms may be found in diet beverages L w e s 3 91 t 1 I i 7 C i 7 i Egg a be 7 T V L lg h 39 L 7 7 W 7 mu 1 I r E1 77F