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General Biology 2 Notes Week 4

by: Christina Hancock

General Biology 2 Notes Week 4 EBIO 1220

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Science > EBIO 1220 > General Biology 2 Notes Week 4
Christina Hancock

GPA 3.0

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These notes cover General Biology 2 Chapter 27, and part 1 of Phylum Chordata. Part 2 of Phylum Chordata notes will be continued in Week 5.
General Biology 2
Dr. Carol Kearns
Class Notes
General Biology 2
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Hancock on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Monday, February 1, 2016 Gen. Biology Notes Week 4 Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 27 Characteristics of Animals: •Need oxygen •Need food —> Heterotrophs •Sexual reproduction •Digestive System •Nervous System •Multicellular •Eukaryotes Chanoflagellates: unicellular and colonial organisms; related to animals - possibly unicellular ancestor or animals. - Found in sponges. Similar cells are found in Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Echinoderms. - DNA sequences indicate that they are sister groups with animals. Sponges are the most private animals. They have a cellular level of organization and no true tissues. How All Animals First Start Out: 1 Monday, February 1, 2016 Endoderm: inner lining of digestive tract, respiratory tract and lungs, liver, and panaceas Ectoderm: Outermost layers, nervous system Mesoderm: Muscles, bonde, repro organs, kidneys, circulatory system. Body Symmetry Types: Radial Bilateral - Most animals have bilateral symmetry Clade Bilateral - Consists of animals with bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development. Advantages of an internal, fluid-filled body cavity: Cushion organs • • Hydrostatic skeleton • Allows for enlargement of organs • Stores waste • Stores gametes • Simple circulatory system 2 Monday, February 1, 2016 Life Without a Backbone: • Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone • They account for 95% of known animal species Sponges: • Sponges live in both fresh and marine waters • Sponges lack true tissues and organs - All animals expect sponges being to the class Eumztaeoa, animals with true tissues. - Phylum Cnidaria is one of the oldest groups in the clade - jellyfish, corals, anemones, hydras. - Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes. Lophotrocozoans: • Flatworms - Phylum Platyhelminthes • Tapeworms - Parasitic and lack a digestive system • Mollusca - The Molluscs (Snails, Scallops, Squids) • Annelids - have bodies composed of a series of fused rings (earthworms) Ecdysozoans: (Those who molt) • Nematodes, AKA Roundworms • Tarigrada, AKA moss piglets Arthropoda: (ticks, mites, spiders, centipedes, crabs, lobsters, shrimp…) • Two out of every three known species of animals are arthropods • The diversity and success of arthropods are largely related to their: Segmentation (repeating body segments w/ modified appendages) • Hard exoskeleton (support, resist desiccation) • • Jointed appendages (efficient locomotion) 3 Monday, February 1, 2016 Cheliceriforms ( sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites, and • spiders) •Myriapods (centipedes and millipedes) •Hexapods (insects and relatives) •Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, and many others) Deuterostomes - Echinoderms • Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Lilies • Most are slow moving or sessile (stay in place) marine animals with bumpy or spiny skin covering a hard calcareous endoskeleton • Water Vascular System: a network of water filled tubes branching into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange. • Pentamerous, secondary radial symmetry ——————————————————————————————————————— Phylum Chordata — Chordata: They all have a “cord” through the center of their bodies. 4 Characteristics Chordates Have In Common: 1. Notochord- Support rod 2. Dorsal Hollow Never Cord- Runs from head to tail 3. Muscular, Post-Anal Tail 4. Pharyngeal Slits or Clefts Most Primitive Types: - Land Slits - Tunicates 4 Monday, February 1, 2016 Evolution of the Jaw: (Sharks, Rays, Chimaeras) Evolution of the Paired Appendages: Heterocercal Tail- helps keep fish up in the water. Axial Locomotion- the movement of a fish (using fins) vs. Appendicular- movement of a human (using legs) Lobe- Finned Fish: fish with bones in their muscular pelvic and pectoral fins Lungfish: have lungs, can breath air and have lobed- fins ** These lead to amphibians. Chapter: Chordata will be continued next week. 5


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