Vaccines:Public Health, Autism, Myths 02/03/16
Vaccines:Public Health, Autism, Myths 02/03/16 IS 343-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Bailey on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 343-001 at a university taught by Dr. Kelly and Dr. Huyck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
02/03/16 Vaccines: Public health, autism Myths Diseases stopped by vaccines Anthrax - a notifiable bacterial disease of sheep and cattle, typically affecting the skin and lungs. It can be transmitted to humans, causing severe skin ulceration or a form of pneumonia Cervical Cancer - a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix— the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Diphtheria - an acute, highly contagious bacterial disease causing inflammation of the mucous membranes, formation of a false membrane in the throat that hinders breathing and swallowing, and potentially fatal heart and nerve damage by a bacterial toxin in the blood. Hepatitis A - a form of viral hepatitis transmitted in food, causing fever and jaundice. Hepatitis B - a severe form of viral hepatitis transmitted in infected blood, causing fever, debility, and jaundice. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) - a bacterium capable of causing a range of diseases including ear infections, cellulitis(soft tissue infection), upper respiratory infections, pneumonia, and such serious invasive infections as meningitis with potential brain damage and epiglottitis with airway obstruction. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) - is a viral infection that is passed between people through skin-to-skin contact. There are more than 100 varieties of HPV, but most emphasis is given to the 40 varieties that affect the genitals, mouth, or throat, that are passed through sexual contact. H1N1 Flu(Swine Flu) - an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. Influenza (Seasonal Flu) - a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) - a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Measles - an infectious viral disease causing fever and a red rash on the skin, typically occurring in childhood. Meningococcal - a bacterium of the genus Neisseria (N. meningitides) that causes cerebrospinal meningitis. Mumps - a contagious and infectious viral disease causing swelling of the parotid salivary glands in the face, and a risk of sterility in adult males. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) - a highly contagious respiratory disease. It is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is known for uncontrollable, violent coughing which often makes it hard to breathe. Pneumococcal - is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and otitis media (middle ear infections) and an important contributor to bacterial meningitis. Poliomyelitis (Polio) - an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. 02/03/16 Rabies - a contagious and fatal viral disease of dogs and other mammals that causes madness and convulsions, transmissible through the saliva to humans. Rotavirus - any of a group of RNA viruses, some of which cause acute enteritis in humans. Rubella (German Measles) - a contagious disease caused by a virus. The infection is usually mild with fever and rash. Shingles (Herpes Zoster) - a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters involving a limited area. Typically the rash occurs on either the left or right of the body or face in a single stripe. Smallpox - an acute contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules usually leaving permanent scars. It was effectively eradicated through vaccination by 1979. Tetanus (Lockjaw) - a serious bacterial disease that affects muscles and nerves. It is characterized by muscle stiffness that usually involves the jaw and neck that then progresses to involve other parts of the body. Tuberculosis - an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the tissues, especially the lungs. Typhoid Fever - an infectious bacterial fever with an eruption of red spots on the chest and abdomen and severe intestinal irritation. Varicella (Chickenpox) - a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which eventually scab over. Yellow Fever - a tropical viral disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Why Immunize Diseases are becoming rare due to vaccinations Keep immunizing until disease is eliminated. Unless we can eliminate the disease, it is important to keep immunizing. Even if there are only a few cases of disease today, if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will become infected and will spread disease to others So what would happen if we stopped vaccinating here? Diseases that are almost unknown would stage a comeback. Before long we would see epidemics of diseases that are nearly under control today. More children would get sick and more would die We don't vaccinate just to protect our children. We also vaccinate to protect our grandchildren and their grandchildren. If we keep vaccinating now, parents in the future may be able to trust that diseases like polio and meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccinations are one of the best ways to put an end to the serious effects of certain diseases 02/03/16 Herd immunity---what is it? Not everyone can be vaccinated: age, chronic illnesses, chemotherapy, immune disorders, for example, may prevent some people, including children from being vaccinated as recommended. Herd immunity means that when most people are vaccinated against one or more diseases, those who cannot be immunized are protected by the immunity of those who have been vaccinated. Vaccine Safety Safety monitoring begins with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Before a vaccine is approved by the FDA for use by the public, results of studies on safety and effectiveness of the vaccine are evaluated by highly trained FDA scientists and doctors. FDA also inspects the sites where vaccines are made. Autism and Vaccines Some parents of children with autism say they first noticed signs of autism a few days, weeks, or months after their child received MMR vaccine. They usually explain that their child was developing normally, and then signs of autism appeared after MMR vaccination. Sometimes, signs of autism do not appear until around the age that the first dose of MMR is given. Some toddlers who have turned 1 year old—or even 2 or 3 years old—regress. That is, they lose the ability to do things that they once were able to do. If regression follows a memorable event like a trip to the doctor for vaccinations, this may seem like cause and effect. For more information, explore the CDC’s http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/default.htm
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