Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes ANT 160
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines for ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Conflicts that Occur Between Indigenous/Ethnic Identities and the State Imagined ExCommunities: Race and Its Social Constructions •Definitions found in: Conrad Phillip Kottack and Kathryn A. Kozaitis. 2003. On Being Different. Diversity and Multiculturalism in the North American Mainstream. Second edition. McGrawHill, New York, NY. •Race = a culturally defined category and manner of organizing human individuals and populations based on assumed shared physical characteristics •Social race = groups assumed to have a biological basis but are actually defined in a culturally arbitrary, rather than scientific, manner. •Based on historic goals to classify all animals into groups (phylogeny). •Later used as a tripartite system during the Colonial period (late 1800 to 1900’s) to keep “white” Europeans separated from their “black” African and “yellow” Asian subjects. •Such classifications attempt to place specific groups of people into isolated distinct groups and are supposed to reflect shared genetic (genotypic) material. •However, such attempts have tended to use phenotypic traits (usually skin color) for racial classification and these are the same traits used to assign arbitrary cultural values to groups. •Racism= beliefs about categorized superiority and inferiority of socially defined groups assumed to share biological characteristics •Intrinsic racism = the belief that a perceived racial (supposed biological) difference is a sufficient reason to value one person less than the other •Stereotypes = •Race and racism: the unsustainable invention of biological racial differences. •Racial classification from the biological perspective: The invalidity of categories based on phenotypic traits. In a population, phenotypic traits vary and not all members of a population are exactly the same phenotypically. •The range of phenotypic traits of a population may change without genetic changes. •Examples •Cranial differences. •For instance the size of the cranium or other parts of the body may be related to the diet of the individual and group. For example the changes in skull form and height among children of European immigrants. 1 •Shape of the cranium may also be due to cultural practices indicating status and group membership such as occurred with the prehispanic Maya, Inca, and other indigenous groups of Central and South America. •Color of skin: it is a product of the production of a protein (melanin) that protects the body in tropical areas: 1. From ultraviolet light and skin cancer. 2. From burning and allows the body to sweat, and reduce the body temperature. 3. Protects the body from overproduction of vitamin D. •Light color is an advantage in areas with low exposure to light and production of vitamin D. Possible Reasons for Racism •To establish an ascribed hierarchy in a society not based on kinship but on a perceived physical characteristics •The need to differentiate group membership •Why? Racism is a means of restricting access to resources. •It is used to justify, explain and preserve a group’s privileged social position by declaring “the other” (other groups) innately or in other words biologically inferior. •Examples •Sports and race issues: Just plain racism and segregation explain the differences. •Culture and the environment define success in sports not biology. Physical activities, including sports which are influenced by culture, help build phenotype. Appropriate sports to play, appropriate behaviors for genders, location of growth, interests etc., all affect a person’s physical abilities. •Race and IQ: Just another form of racist justification. Variation in knowledge is cultural not biological. •IQ tests measure economic and social background and education, but nothing else. Some people may be smarter than others but this cannot be generalized to whole populations. •How do you measure intelligence? If you base it on formal knowledge that is taught, than the education of a person is being measured and there is differential access to education. •In one early study (Klineberg 1951) Native Americans from reservations did poorly on intelligence testing but with the development of better school systems their scores improved dramatically. •Race and racism are social and historical constructions. 2 •Race is situational: It is based on categorization done by someone else. It reflects relations of labor, economic relations, social relations. •Race and ethnicity both are situational. (The categorizations termed “Imagined Communities” will be covered later. These change based on the situation of the individual and group). Ideologies of Segregation • Institutional segregation: US and Institutional Segregation, race and ethnicity: a product of government policies. Example: apartheid in South Africa, USA up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. •United States Supreme Court Cases Regarding Racism, Segregation, and Civil Rights. •See www.crmvet.org for further information. •1896. Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned "separate but equal" segregation of the races. •1954. The Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. •1956. Buses are desegregated in Montgomery, Alabama after a boycott lead by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. lasts a year following Rosa Parks arrest for not giving up her seat to a white bus rider. •1963. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “I Have a Dream Speech.” •1963. The 24 Amendment to the Constitution abolishes the poll tax that had occurred in 11 southern states to make it difficult for poor black and white people to vote. •1964. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination of all kinds, based on race, color, religion, or national origin. •1965. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 makes literacy tests, taxes and other hindrances to register to vote illegal. •1967. In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Incidentally, the film Guess Who's Coming to Dinner was released six months later (December 1967) and dealt with the subject of interracial marriage and starred Sidney 3 Poitier, Spencer Tracy, Katherine Hepburn and her niece Katherine Houghton. Directed by Stanley Kramer and written by William Rose. •1968. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. •1988. Overriding President Reagan’s veto, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which expands the reach of nondiscrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds. •1991. President Bush signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, strengthening existing civil rights laws and providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination. •In the most important affirmative action decision since the 1978 Bakke case, the Supreme Court (5–4) upholds the University of Michigan Law School's policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered by colleges when selecting their students because it furthers "a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body." Other Issues Related to Race •Affirmative Action = •Racist Ideologies today: Ascription based on color or ethnicity. •Hypodescent = Common in the US. •The ideology of compromise: example Brazil. One’s class/status affects one’s racial classification (“money whitens”). •In this case race can change based on class membership (not found in US where race assignment stays the same regardless of class). •The category of Indian and Cabôclos. Cabôclos is a term for assimilated indigenous people in Brazil. •Example of the races you can choose from on the US 2010 Census Form 9. What is Person 1’s race? Mark K one or more boxes. White Black, African Am., or Negro American Indian or Alaska Native — Print name of enrolled or principal tribe. Asian Indian Chinese Filipino Other Asian — Print race, for example, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on. C 4 Japanese Korean Vietnamese Native Hawaiian Guamanian or Chamorro Samoan Other Pacific Islander — Print race, for example, Fijian, Tongan, and so on. Some other race – Print race. From http://2010.census.gov/2010census/about/interactiveform.php see Data Explore the Form 2010 Census •Solutions: The elimination of ascribed categories. •When conflicts occur, individuals have the choice of retreating into more constrained aspects of territoriality in space and time (i.e. reassertion of ethnicity, religious identity, family values) or they can embrace notions of the state (i.e. secular or religious) in their dealings with others. 5
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