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HESC/KNES 342 week 2 notes

by: Theint Myint

HESC/KNES 342 week 2 notes hesc/knes 342

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

powerpoint notes
Stress Management
Karen Fazio
Class Notes
stress, STRESS MANAGEMENT, Health Science, KNES, Kinesiology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Stress  Management     Ch  4:    THE  MEANING  OF  STRESS     In  this  Chapter:   n Multiple  Meanings  of  Stress   n Responses  to  Stress   n Assessing  Stress   n The  Function  of  Stress   n The  Stress  Response   n Stress  Prevention  and  Management  Model     Definition  of  Stress   n Stress  can  be  defined  as  a  psychological  and  physiological  reaction  to   a  real  or  perceived  threat  that  requires  some  action  or  resolution   n Perception  is  the  key  factor  in  this  definition   n People  will  respond  differently  to  the  exact  same  stimuli     Multiple  Meanings  of  Stress   n Stress  can  be  triggered  by  a  real  or  imaginary  stimulus   n Stress  is  a  response  that  operates  on  cognitive,  behavioral,  and   biological  levels   n Stress  is  a  survival  mechanism  to  increase  internal  awareness  of   danger  and  transform  all  the  body’s  resources  to  a  heightened  state  of   readiness     What’s  in  a  Name?   n The  word  stress  is  derived  from  the  Middle  English  stresse,   meaning  “hardship”,  and  the  Old  French  estrece,  meaning   “oppression”   n Today’s  interpretation  of  stress  was  spurred  by  Canadian   biologist  Hans  Selye   n Today,  doctors  warn  about  the  epidemic  of  health  problems   that  result  from  excessive  stress     How  is  Stress  a  Problem?   n About  75  to  90  percent  of  all  visits  to  a  primary  care  physician  are  because  of   stress-­‐related  disorders   n Stress  is  linked  to  the  six  leading  causes  of  death  in  North  America   n About  90  %  of  all  adults  report  that  they  have  experienced  stress  at  some   time  in  their  lives     A  Selected  History  of  Stress   n Ancient  Contributions   n Claude  Bernard  developed  the  concept  of  internal  environment   n Charles  Darwin  theorized  that  fear  and  stress  are  adaptive  mechanisms  for   survival   n Freud  developed  a  theory  of  psychological  disturbance  based  on  the   conscious  and  unconscious  fears  that  motivate  behavior   n Walter  Cannon  was  the  first  physiologist  to  begin  talking  about  stress  in  the   context  of  emotional  responses   n Cannon  coined  the  term  “the  fight-­‐or-­‐flight  response”  to  describe  the  stress   response  that  becomes  activated  during  perceived  threats   n Hans  Selye,  often  recognized  as  the  father  of  stress  research,  studied  rats   under  chronic  stress  conditions   n He  noticed  a  consistent  pattern  of  bodily  changes  emerging  (i.e.,  General   Adaptation  Syndrome),  including  an  enlargement  of  the  adrenal  glands,   shrinkage  of  thymus,  and  ulceration  of  the  stomach  lining     Selye’s  General  Adaptation  Syndrome   n Alarm  Stage  –  Acute  stress  reactivity  characterized  by  disruption  of  the   body’s  homeostasis   n Resistance  Stage  –  Presence  of  the  stressor  necessitates  bodily  adaptations   and  coping  mechanisms  resulting  in  stress  products     n Exhaustion  Stage  –  Prolonged  exposure  to  stressors  leads  to  the  depletion  of   resistance  energy  resulting  in  illness  or  even  death     n Allostasis  and  Allostatic  Load   n Sterling  and  Eyer  coined  this  term  to  mean  the  combined   physiological  and  psychological  adaptation  to  the  experience  of   threats  or  adversities   n McEwen  created  the  concept  of  allostatic  load  to  describe  what   happens  when  the  same  adaptive  system  that  was  designed  to  protect   us  actually  tears  us  apart     Responses  to  Stress   n People  respond  to  stress  in  different  ways,  physiologically,  emotionally,   cognitively,  and  systematically   n Humans  are  the  only  species  that  worry  themselves  over  imagined  fears   n Fight-­‐or-­‐flight  response  is  a  survival  mechanism  with  many  unique  and   specific  physiological  reactions     Types  of  Stress   n Short-­‐term  stress  (acute)  is  activated  by  sudden  threat  or  danger   n Long-­‐term  stress  (chronic)  brings  on  wear-­‐and-­‐tear  of  the  body   n Hyperstress  is  an  excessive  amount  of  stress  that  overloads  the  system   n Hypostress  means  inadequate  stress  to  keep  the  body  tuned  and  ready  for   action   n Selye  defined  three  further  terms:  distress,  neustress,  and  eustress   n Distress  is  the  negative,  harmful,  destructive  type  of  stress   n Neustress  is  neutral  stress  having  little  impact  on  you     n Eustress  is  good  stress,  the  type  that  inspires  and  motivates  you       Sources  of  Stress   n External  sources   n Internal  sources   n The  interaction  of  both  internal  and  external  sources.     n Physical  –  when  the  human  body  is  affected  adverse  conditions  such  as  sleep   deprivation  and  infections   n Psychological  –  caused  by  the  interpretations  of  the  events  in  our  life;  they   are  determined  by  our  values,  beliefs,  attitudes,  and  philosophies  of  life.   n Psychosocial  -­‐  arises  from  interactions  with  people  and  the  society  in  which   you  live.   n Biochemical  -­‐  Excessive  use  of  certain  substances  such  as  sugar,  nicotine,   caffeine,  alcohol  and  exposure  to  substances  in  the  environment     Stress  Management  &  Prevention   • Stage  1:  Life  Situations/Chronic  Stressors   • Stage  2:  Perception/Evaluation   • Stage  3:  Stress  Response   • Stage  4:  Consequences     Five  principles  of  stress  prevention  and  management   1. Prevention  is  more  effective  than  management   2. Small  changes  can  lead  to  big  effects   3. Don’t  count  on  a  magic  bullet  for  solving  all  your  stress  problems   4. Tailor  a  program  to  your  own  schedule  and  means   5. Develop  a  comprehensive  plan  for  stress  prevention  and  management    


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