Memory chp8.pdf PSY 202
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ben Christensen on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Rujin, Dr. Laver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Memory Gary Laver I. A Simple Experiment Listen to all the words you hear and attempt to recall them: Crib, drowsy, bed, matress, rest, sleep, awake, snooze. (sleep was not on the real list, I made it up as a false memory) - When recalling a list, we do best with the beginning, not well in the middle, and improve at the end. Serial position = a critical piece of information that is the place where a thing is in the list. The serial position effect curve = is a rough U shape II. The Serial Position Curve A. Recency Effect 1. The ending improvement in a recall list B. Primacy Effect 1. The good recall for the beginning of the list C. How Can We Explain This Curve? (click on link) 1. The labels of recency and primacy effect do not explain the phenomenon. 2. Resency effect = the last items are still in your awareness and easier to write down - Short term memory (STM): Synonymous with conscious awareness 3. Primacy effect = maintenance of repetition - Long Term Memory LTM: storage for thing you aren’t thinking of. 4. There is a transfer from STM to LTM. This is a non-conscious process. III. A Model of Memory 3 box model: 1) sensory memory : very brief but accurate information from the environment that we do not have to pay attention to at all times. - Iconic memory : a visual store (lasts half a second ) - Echoic : an auditory store (lasts a few seconds) - supports our sense of a continuous experience - information is lost and never reaches conscious awareness 2) Short Term Memory: typically requires attention. We are sensitive to certain information that can barge its way through sensory (ie our names in a crowd) - this is conscious awareness that normally requires attention - holds 7 plus/minus 2 items - keeping material in the awareness -> repeating things, telling a story, rehearsal or other things - without rehearsal the memory decays after 30 sec 3) Long Term Memory : processing information helps transfer it to LTM - we are not aware of LTM - “remembering” means transferring material back to STM - “Forgetting” = just harder to access and transfer to STM The Sad Story of Clive (long version) * Clive wearing has moment to moment consciousness. A cold virus migrated to the brain and caused insephilitus and intense brain pressure which damaged his hypocampus. - The transfer from STM to LTM is non existent. - he is running off previous LTM but nothing new goes in IV. Other Ways to Look at Memory A. Depth of Processing -what are the stratagies you use to record the memory influences the strength of the memory. The type of mental activity you use increases the strength. * Study done by Craik and Tulving (1975) they performed a recalling of words test but with no hint of the recall in the future. People saw the words one at a time, and each group were asked questions about each word [ie: is it in capital letters (visual), does it rhyme with date? (sound), is it a type of fish? (categorical), or does it make sense in this sentence (meaning)] Recall : Visual-18% Sound – 78% categorical – 93% meaning – 96% B. Encoding Specifity - How easily information is remembered depends on how it was stored and used (ie: the years of the month are remembered in order) * study by Godden and Baddeley (1975) Half the people studied on land the others under water. Half of each group were tested on land and the others on land. All contingencies were tested. DRY-DRY = 13.5% WET-WET = 11.4% DRY-WET = 8.6 % WET-DRY = 8.4% C. Explicit vs Implicit Memory
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