CJ 3250 Chapter 2
CJ 3250 Chapter 2 3250
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne Schoenfeld on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3250 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Henriikka Weir in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Violence in society in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Violence in Society Thursday 1/28 Chapter 2 The Application of Measures of Violence o The measure of violence are social indicators that enable us to assess where we are going concerning our values and goals as a society o Measuring violence is important because it allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of curtain programs o Fund Allocation Omnibus crime control and safe streets Act of 1968: Distribution of federal funds based on last three years of violent crime in any given jurisdiction, based on UCR o Data is accessible on the internet Understand the characteristics of the most commonly used data sources as well as their strengths and limitations Chapter 2 Three main measures of violence in the United States including strengths and limitation o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Crime in the United States Information is collected by the FBI through local law- enforcement agencies and reports official crime statistics o National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) This is a revised version of the UCR from above o National Crime Victims Survey (NCVS) Administered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau This is based on national survey and provides information about criminal and violent victimization Crime Rates o Amount vs Rate Amount is the raw number of violent incidents in ant geographical area which is defined in a certain time span In 2012, New York City had 419 murders while Chicago 500 In 2012, Austin had 31 murders while Baltimore had 218 Rate is the measure of the amount of change in relation to some basis of calculation such as population at risk o The five components of crime rates Amount if crime in question Population at risk for that crime A constant multiplier, i.e. 100,000 Location Time span o Formula: Crime rate= (amount of crime / population at risk) x 100,000 New York 5.05 Chicago 18.46 Baltimore 34. 85 Austin 3.72 Homicide rate in Us is 4.7 per 100,000 in 2012 o Why are they useful? Specify risk for defined population by making comparison possible i.e. Comparing Chicago to New York City Comparing the same population over time i.e. comparing how homicide rates in Chicago have changed over time Multiplier of 100,000 conventionally used to convert decimals to whole numbers (With NCVS the multiplier is 1,000) o Potential problems? Assume that population dimensions for the rates being computed and compared between 2 cities i.e. if they are similar o Three main measures: UCR 1. The uniform Crime reports (UCR) 1920s- started when the FBI with support from the International Association of Chiefs of Police, started the program to collect national crime data 1930- The Us House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing the FBI as the national clearinghouse for information on crime obtain by the nation’s police departments 2012- 308 million (98.1%) of the US population was covered by the law-enforcement agencies participating in the UCR reporting program Collecting Violent Crime Data by UCR Most often begins with a complaint to a law- enforcement official Investigation and record compiling if crime has occurred States with mandatory reporting system and some large cities report directly to the UCR program (figure 2.1 on page 28) Collects information on four violent crimes: Murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault What is measured by UCR? Return A: Crimes Known to the police Offenses reported or known Founded vs unfound complaints Number of actual offences (i.e. actual offenses) Total number cleared by arrest or exceptionally cleared Note the difference between number of offenses cleared by arrest vs. number of offenders arrested Exceptional clearances refer to administrative closing of cases for a variety of circumstances beyond the control of the police department Number of clearances for persons under 18 B. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Origin of Persons Arrested 2 forms, one for adults and the other for people under 18 Juvenile form asks about curfew violations and run away incidents Instead of clearance measures, this form asks for the number of arrested offenders Four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian, and Asian or Pacific Islander Ethnicity: Hispanic vs Non- Hispanic C. Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR) Provides information on each recorded case of murder and non- negligent manslaughter 1962 to 1975- SHR only recorded the age, race, and gender of victims, weapon used, and circumstances of the offense 1976- the SHR was revised and now includes a situation code that indicates combinations of single or multiple victims and single / multiple or unknown offenders; age, sex, race and ethnicity of all victims and offenders; weapons used by victim and offender; the relationship of the victim and offender; and situation including involvement in other felony crimes 2.National Incident- Based Reporting system (NIBRS) Modified version of UCR o Some revisions and modifications to UCR in 1976 but major redesign and evaluation began in 1982 This system was based on major characteristics of serious crimes rather than aggregate summary information o SHR type of data for all serious offenses vs just homicides The NIBRS gathers information on 46 group A offenses in 22 categories, and 11 group B offenses o Group A: Usually more serious such as homicides, robbery, assaults, sex offenses, fraud, stolen property etc., These are selected based on the seriousness, frequency, prevalence, and visibility to law- enforcement (detailed incident report filed) o Group B: Usually less serious, such as bad check offenses, curfew violations, and disorderly conduct (only arrest report filed) Main differences between the UCR and the NIBRS: o Aggregate summary reports on 8 index crimes vs. detailed incident reports for 8 index crimes and 28 other crimes o Records for 1 offense as determined per hierarchy rule vs. each offense occurring in the incident o Distinction between attempted vs completed offenses o Applies hotel rule to burglary vs. expands burglary rule to include rental storage facilities o Records female (and forcible) rapes vs both gender victimization o Collects weapon info only for murder, robbery, and aggravated assault vs. all violent offenses o Provides counts on arrests for the 8 index crimes and 21 other offenses vs 8 index crimes and 49 other offenses 2. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Rely on interviews with victims Attempts to gauge crime not reported to or by the police Early surveys in mid 60s indicated that crime rates reported by the UCR were only about one half to one third of those based on victim reports National Crime Survey Started in 1972 o Victimization surveys in large cities done from 1972 to 1975, after that only nationwide survey done o Since 1991, this survey has been known as National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 3. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) continued Collects data from a nationally representative sample of about 100,00 individuals age 12 and older living in about 50,000 US households The NCVS does not complete with the UCR and NIBRS, it complements them Some limitations include the cost; poor memory and telescoping; errors in reporting
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