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BIOL 111: Concepts of Biology Ch. 1&2

by: Megan Giesler

BIOL 111: Concepts of Biology Ch. 1&2 BIOL 111

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Biological Sciences > BIOL 111 > BIOL 111 Concepts of Biology Ch 1 2
Megan Giesler
GPA 3.6
Concepts of Biology
Christopher Felege

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Chapter 1 and 2 notes
Concepts of Biology
Christopher Felege
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, BIOL 111
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Giesler on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Christopher Felege in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Biology 111 Concepts of Biology Key note Chapter One 11 The Characteristics of Life Life is organized and has building blocks Without one you cannot have the next for example you cannot have a tissue if you do not have cells to make up the tissues From smallest to largest composed of electrons neutrons and protons union of 2 or more atoms smallest groups of cells with common structure and function tissues working together for a speci c task many organs working together an individual complex individuals ex humans contain organ systems organisms of the same species in an area populations interacting in an area community plus the environment Earth Atollns and molecules are NOT living making the cell the small living thing 0 energy sources 0 capacity to do work 0 chemical reactions that happen in a cell 0 The ultimate source of energy for almost all life on Earth is the sun Remaining homeostatic maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries 0 Controlling external conditions will help control internal conditions Ex birds migrating to warmer or cooler climates Living organisms respond reproduce amp develop and adapt Respond 0 They need to nd energy Reproduce amp develop 0 Needs to reproduce to carry on species 0 DNA is the blueprint for all organisms Adapt 0 Make modi cations so organism is better suited for their environment 12 Evolution The Core or Unifying Concept of Biology process by which populations accumulate adaptations over time to become more suited to their environments Explains the unity and diversity of life 0 Two de nitions 0 Descent with modi cation EX a mutation occurs in the DNA and makes the color of the animal better suited for its environment it will be more likely to survive and pass on its mutation to it offspring 0 Change in allele frequency over time Evolutionary tree traces the ancestry of life on Earth to a common ancestor Hiawt Limrsl Ehimpanzea Bear I Gamma mammal ancestur V V Gammon amwime sincestair n Gamma testiraipud ancestor Gammon jawed vertebrate neestar Gamman vertebrate anneetnr Natural selection 0 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace both independently came to the conclusion that evolution occurs by a process called natural selection 0 a process that results in a population adapting to the environment 0 Charles Darwin wrote On the Origin 0f5pecies presenting substantiating data 0 Darwin published his nding before Wallace which is why he is more known 0 Evolution is a core concept of biology o It explains so many different types of observations in every eld of biology Environments may change due to the in uence of living or nonliving factors 0 How natural selection works Natural Selection 1 Each speeies shows variatipn 2 There is tempetitipn within each species fer feed listing spa ee water mates etc 3 The better adaptedquot members pf I Gutteti these species are mere liker tp survive 39 quotSumival pf th e lF39ittest g 39 i 39 xii These surviuprs will pass pn their better f H i genes to their pffspring wh will alsp shew this beneficial variatipn Darwin said evolution is descent with modi cation 0 Hawaiian honeycreepers o All evolved from one species of nch 0 Assortment of bill types adapted to different types of food 0 Still share certain characteristics from common nch ancestor Body shape nesting behavior etc L Apaip ane r 39 Amalkihi nectar I 1 nectar and insects Nihoa Finch quot r J f I Akiapolla39au 39insects seeds 1 l insects lJird eggs 3 quot L T39 Organizing the Diversity of Life 0 discipline of naming and classifying organisms according to certain rules o classi es them and determine their evolutionary relationships categmes Of classi cation Eukarya I Animalia 0 Domain most Incluswe 39 Phylum ngdom A l 0 Phylum Glass Mammalla 0 d Order 1 0 Fa m Family G e n u S V Canldae G 39 o SpeCIes least IncluSIve wig Species wipes 7 I Red fox Wipes Wipes 3 Domains 0 Domain Archaea o unicellular lacks membranebound nucleus 0 May be representative of rst cells on Earth 0 Domain Bacteria o Prokaryote unicellular lacks membranebound nucleus 0 Found almost everywhere 0 Domain Eukarya o uniceuar or muticeuar have membranebound nucleus 0 Divided into 4 Kingdoms Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Naming organisms numazin Eukaria g Kingdom t 39 1 II o Names are made up of two parts at Win If quotTquot n I x7 39 r 1mm 11 0 First word IS genus K Hm fm mmmi 0 Second word is the species I a Ex Homo sapiens g Prnnateg Hmninitlae 0 Names are universally scientists to avoid confusion of Home common names HarrieIE 13 Science A Way of Knowing the scienti c study of life Scienti c Method 1 Observation a May take advantage of knowledge and experiences of other scientists 2 Hypothesis a Scientist uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole b possible explanation for an event i Consider only things that can be tested 3 Make a prediction and preform experiments a Experiments further observations and test the hypothesis b Good experimental design all conditions constant except experimental variable i Test group versus control group ii Repeatable c Data may suggest correlation but that does not mean causation i Scientists are skeptics 4 Conclusion a Is the hypothesis supported or not Scienti c theory 0 summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing accepted explanations for how the world works 0 Cell theory gene theory etc o generalizes a body of observations At the time it is made no exceptions have been found to a law 0 Law of Gravity The theory of evolution is considered a unifying concept in biology 0 Some biologists refer to the principle or law of evolution due to over 100 years of support by so many observations and experiments 14 Challenges Facing Science 0 application of scienti c knowledge for a practical purpose 0 branch of ethics concerned with the development and consequences of technology 0 Biodiversity is perhaps the single most signi cant bioethical issue today 0 variation in life on Earth referring to numbers of different species 0 Estimated 15 million species on Earth but only about 2 million are classi ed Extinction death of an entire species or taxonomical group 0 Estimated 400 species per day are lost due to human activity Emerging diseases 0 Emerging diseases may result from new andor increased exposure to animals or insect populations that may act as vectors for disease 0 Change in human behavior and use of technology Climate change 0 Changes in the normal cycles of the Earth s climate that may be attributed to human activity Primarily due to imbalance in chemical cycling of carbon 0 Due to burning of fossil fuels and destruction of forests Chapter 2 21 Atoms and Atomic Bonds Matter Refers to anything that takes up space and has mass 0 Can exist as a solid liquid or gas Composed of elements 0 substance that cannot be broken down into another substance by ordinary chemical means Only 92 naturally occurring elements 0 Four elements make up about 96 of the body weight of most living organisms Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Atomic structure 0 Atomic theory states that elements consist of atoms 7 o name of the atom or element e 1 Subatomic particles 1 o I no electrical charge foqu 0 positive charge found in nucleus 1 0 negative charge found outside the nucleus 1 o equal to the sum of protons and neutrons Hydr gen 0 Atomic weight changes with gravity 439 ill Atomic number 39 o All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 0 Also givesnumbenof el ectronsin an atom is electrically neutral Periodic table 0 Elements chemical and physical characteristics recur in a predictable manner Atoms are arranged in periods rows and groups columns group number H2 34567He 39 NaMg AlSiPSClllr KCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr Pill Period A V Pedods Isotopes Isotopes have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons different mass numbers Unstable and may decay emitting radiation Radioactive isotope behavior is essentially the same as a stable isotope of same element but can 0 Be used as tracer in PET scans 0 Cause damage to cells leading to cancer 0 Be used to sterilize medical equipment Arrangement of electrons in an atom Electrons are constantly moving It is useful to construct models of atoms with electron shells which each shell contains a certain number of electrons For atoms up to the number 20 on the periodic table 0 2 electrons ll the rst shell 0 8 electrons ll the second shell Octet rule for valence shell outer most shell 0 In an atom has more than 2 shells the outer most stable with 8 electrons o Atoms can give up accept or share electrons to have 8 Chemical properties of atoms are largely determined by the arrangement of their electrons shell is Types of chemical bonds group of atoms bonded together 0 02 H20 C6H1206 N2 molecule containing atoms of more than one element 0 H20 C6H1206 2 types of bonds 0 attraction between opposite charges Forms when 2 atoms are held together by attraction between opposite chargers o sharing electrons to complete outer shell 2 atoms share electrons Hii39iijil39 atoms Tth N FE Fl EILF ELVEC39E39FIIC N 39 ohmrims or ammonia ml wl peitiue neg atiwe quot quot lain ion oovailent bond ionio bond rzigro39l Eli Esm ai oi ElEilil 39 39o Iiia E i n Emanuel Double covalent bond sharing 2 pairs of electrons Triple covalent bond sharing 3 pairs of electrons Double and Triple Covalent Bond s Doubhw Triple Covalent Bonds gt r m 39 i 39 39 i i 1 39 4 t 2 e01 io iol wool Mohxol 39V V gt Hear I 7 fr Each oxygen atom has 6 Each nitrogen atom Each oxygen atom has 6 Each nitrogen atom valence electrons Group has 5 valence valence electrons Group has 5 valence 7 6A When they lbond electrons Group 5A 6A When they bond electrons Group 5A together they share 2 When they bond together they share 2 When they lbond quotnah CfmmLiz electrons with each together they share 3 Electrons with each together they share 3 quot Ju 391quot other forming a shared electrons with each other forming a shared electrons with each Jrquot A1 DOUBLE BOND other forming 0 DOUBLE BOND other forming a a quot39I shared TRIPLE BOND Sh ed TRIPLE BONDV quot39 uses straight lines HH o 1 line indicates 1 pare of shared electrons simply shows number of atoms involved H2 Chemical formulas and reactions 0 molecules that participate in reactions 0 Shown to the left of the arrow 0 molecules formed by reactions 0 Shown to the left of the arrow 0 Equation is balanced if the same number of each type of atom occurs on both sides of the arrow Reactants Products CE 22 Water s Importance to Life 0 Life began in water 0 H20 is the single most important molecule on Earth 0 All organisms are 7090 water 0 Water has unique properties that make it a lifesupporting substance 0 Properties stem from the structure of the molecule The structure of water 0 Polar covalent bond 0 Atoms do not share electrons equally 0 Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen 0 Electrons spend more time around the oxygen nucleus than the hydrogen nuclei 0 Oxygen end becomes slightly negativehydrogens become sighty positive NOT an ionic bond or ions 0 Hydrogen bond 5 0 Slightly positive hydrogen of one water molecule attracted to 39 39 quot 5 the slightly negative oxygen in another water molecule Properties of water Solvency 0 Water dissolves many substances due to its polarity and hydrogen bonding o moecues attracted to water 0 molecules not attracted to water Cohesion and Adhesion o ability of water molecules to cling to each other due to hydrogen bonding o ability of water molecules to cling to other polar surfaces 0 High surface tension 0 Water molecules at the surface cling more tightly to each other than to the air above This is why some bugs can walk on water 0 Mainly due to hydrogen bonding High heat capacity o The many hydrogen bonds lining water molecules allow water to absorb heat without greatly changing its temperature 0 High heat of vaporization o Takes a great deal of energy to break hydrogen bonds for evaporation 0 Heat is dispelled as water evaporates o Varying density 0 When water freezes it expands and creates ice 0 Ice oats because it is less dense than the water around it which makes life underwater life possible in the winter because the ice acts as an insulator keeping the water at livable temperature Hydrogen bound Liquid water ice Hydrogen bonds const an y break E 1 Stable ihiydlmgen lbonds hold molecules 3 art and reiform aquot p imaklrlg me less dense E than water 23 Acids and Bases pH and the pH scale 0 Mathematical way to indicate the number of hydrogen ions in a solution 0 pH scae ranges from 014 V The PH EEHIE Acidic Alkaline A 7 JR r r a ll 1 3 4 E E E 9 1B 111 quot132 113 TIEI39ll l l l bile ultral 0 Water divides into equal numbers of hydrogen ions H and hydroxide ions OH 4 2 o HOH Hquot OHquot Acidic solutions 6 0 High Hquot Concentration o Acids release hydrogen ions 0 Lemon juice vinegar and coffee 0 Basic solutions alkaline 6 0 Low Hquot concentration 0 Either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions Buffers and pH Chemicals that keep pH in normal limits Resists pH change by taking up excess 2 or 0 pH of blood is about 74 and is maintained by a buffer


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