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Psyc Ch 6 Notes

by: Lauren Fleming

Psyc Ch 6 Notes Psyc 2010 sec 3- Taylor

Lauren Fleming
GPA 3.76

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About this Document

These notes cover info for exam 2
Intro to Psyc
Dr. Taylor
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Fleming on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 sec 3- Taylor at Clemson University taught by Dr. Taylor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psyc in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Psyc Ch 6 Exam 2 Notes    Sensation & Perception  ­ process by which an organism responds to a stimulus  ­ Absolute threshold­​ minimum amount of a stimulus which must be present to be  detected  ­ difference threshold­​ amount of change in a stimulus which can be detected  the seven senses:  I. Vision  ● sequence: ​ cornea­pupil­iris­lens­retina  ● visual receptors are in the retina  ○ rods­ dark & light; active in low light  ○ cones­ color  ○ stimulus  ■ light  ■ visible spectrum, 400­700 nm  A. color vision & color blindness  ● Young­helmholz trichromatic theory of color vision­​  3 cones are max  sensitive to different lavewenths (red, green, blue)  ● color blindness comes from a deficiency in red and/or green cones  ● 3 types of cones: red/green, black/white, blue/yellow. ​ Opponent process  theory suggests that these 3 cones are receptive to these pairs, so it’s diff  from Young­Helmholz (alternate perspective of trichromatic theory)  ○ colors stimulate or inhibit neurons that perceive pairs of colors  ○ explains afterimages ­ opposite color  ● defect in red/green responsiveness. 2% do not have the cone   B. visual organization: Gestalt rules  1. Proximity  ● elements which are CLOSER together are seen as a group  2. Closure  ● we complete or close in open or incomplete lines  3. Figure­Ground  ● part of form perception  ● separating the main fig in a visual field from the background  II. Hearing   ­ sequence:​ outer ear­ auditory canal­eardrum­hammer, anvil, stirrup­cochlea  ­ receptors  ­ hair cells or cilia in the cochlea  ­ stimulus  ­ changes in air pressure  ­ sensorineural hearing loss (damage to hair cells/nerves)  ­ cochlear implants  III. Touch  ● receptors  ○ pressure sensitive; on the skin  ● factors in sensitivity of body areas  ○ concentration of receptors  ○ area of sensory cortex devoted to interpretation  ○ unexpected sensations are processed diff  IV. Pain  ● phantom limb pain comes from:  ­ false signals in cut nerves & brain  ­ increased excitability of associated spinal cord cells also create false signals   ● treating: physical & behavioral therapies; clear attentional aspect in pain; distraction  ● Gate control theory ​ suggests stimulation of large nerve fibers may help  V. Taste  ● receptors ­ p​apillae that extend out of taste buds  ○ buds of sensitive tasters are more complex, elaborate  ● stimulus ­ chemicals  ○ born with a sweet tooth  VI. Smell  ● receptors­ embedded in nose  ■ hotwired from nose to limbic areas  ■ explains emotional reactions to scent  ● Stimulus­ chemical  ■ pheromones­ have minimal impact on human behavior; learned  associations  VII. Body Position & movement: Vestibular/Kinesthesis  ● vestibular sense is also called equilibrium  ● main receptor  ○ otoliths in semicircular canals are key  ● balance also depends on vision & feedback from muscles  ● Kinesthesia​  is your sense of where your body is in space 


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