New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 150, week 1 & 2 of notes

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Savannah Webb

Bio 150, week 1 & 2 of notes BIO 150

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Biology > BIO 150 > Bio 150 week 1 2 of notes
Savannah Webb
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Organismal/Ecological Biology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Organismal/Ecological Biology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Overview DNA HWE
Organismal/Ecological Biology
Brian O
Class Notes




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future"
Louie Fritsch

Popular in Organismal/Ecological Biology

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Webb on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 150 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Brian O in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organismal/Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.


Reviews for Bio 150, week 1 & 2 of notes

Star Star Star Star Star

So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future

-Louie Fritsch


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/03/16
Biology 150 5 Big Ideas  1. Evolution 2. Structure and Function 3. Information Flow and Storage 4. Transformation of Energy and Storage  5. Systems Tree of Life ­ Tree of organisms and their geology  Phylogenic Tree ­ Used to show the relationships between species Ecology  ­ Study of how organisms interact with their environment  1. Organisms 2. Populations 3. Communities 4. Ecosystems 5. Global Organismal ecology ­ Organismal ecologist explore the morphological, physiological and behavioral  adaptations that all individual organisms to live successfully in a particular area Populations Ecology  ­ Group of individuals of the same species that live in an area ­ Focus on how the numbers in a population change over time Community Ecology ­ How they interact with one another ­ Study the nature and consequences of the interactions Ecosystem Ecology  ­ All organisms in a particular region, nonliving, or abiotic Global Ecology ­ Zone surrounding the earth where all life exist ­ Climate change  Examples: Organismal­ salmon travel from salt water to freshwater to bread Population­ fish produce thousands of eggs, only a few survive on average Community­ bear eats salmon, salmon eats another animal Ecosystem­ not enough oxygen in the water for fish to travel up stream Conservation biology ­ Study, preserve, and restore threatened populations, communities, and ecosystems  ­ 5 Levels of Ecological study are synthesized and applied in conservation biology   Biodiversity  ­ Tree of life, lineage of organisms ­ Describes relationships among all forms of life  ­ ↑ increase: add branches and tips ­ ↓ decrease: remove branches Genetic diversity  ­ Total genetic information within all species  ­ Measured as the number and relative frequency of all alleles present ­ Ones that do better will have more offspring Species Diversity ­ Variety of all life forms on earth ­ Number and relative frequency of species in a particular region  ­ Speciation increases species diversity ­ Extinction decreases species diversity  DNA ­ Can store and transmit biological information  ­ Carries information required for the organism’s growth and reproduction ­ The language of nucleic acids is contained in the sequences of the bases ­ Carries information required for the growth and reproduction of all cells Meiosis  ­ Gamete (egg and sperm) production ­ Daughter cells have half the amount of genetic material as the parent cell Mitosis  ­ The production of all other cell types referred to as somatic cells  ­ Genetic material is copied and then divided equally ­ Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cells 1. Interphase 2. Prophase 3. Prometaphase 4. Metaphase 5. Anaphase 6. Telaphase 7. Cell division starts 8. Cell division ends *If the cell does not split apart then it produces mutation  Crossing over ­ Increases diversity ­ So you don’t have clones Mendel proposed a hypothesis called particulate inheritance ­Suggests that hereditary determinants maintain their integrity   from generation to generation Directly contradicts   ­ The blending of inheritance  ­ The inheritance of acquired characteristics hypotheses DNA     →        mRNA     →    Proteins *information    *information    *active cell   Storage            carrier        machinery *transcription *translation Allele Frequencies There are four mechanisms that shift allele frequencies in populations: 1.  Natural selection increases the frequency of those   alleles that contribute to reproductive success in a   particular environment 2. Genetic drift causes allele frequencies to change   randomly 3. Gene flow occurs when individuals leave one   population, join another, and breed 4. Mutation modifies allele frequencies by continually   introducing new alleles G. H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg ­ Studied how the four evolutionary processes affect populations ­ Wanted to know what happened in an entire population when all of the individuals—and thus  all possible genotypes—bred ­ Developed a mathematical model to analyze the consequences of such matings ­ Hardy and Weinberg imagined that all of the gametes produced in each generation go into a  single group called a gene pool and then combine randomly They started with the simplest situation, a gene with two alleles, A1 and A2 ­ The frequency of A1 is represented by p and the frequency of A2 is represented by q.  Because there are only two alleles, p + q = 1 ­ In this situation, three genotypes are possible: A1A1, A1A2, and A2A2. The model  predicts the following genotype frequencies: ­ The frequency of the A1A1 genotype is p2 ­ The frequency of the A2A2 genotype is q2 ­ The frequency of the A1A2 genotype is 2pq The Hardy–Weinberg principle makes two fundamental claims: 1. If the frequencies of alleles A1 and A2 in a population are given by p and q, then the  frequencies of genotypes A1A1, A1A2, and A2A2 will be given by p2, 2pq, and q2 for  generation after generation ­ Allele frequencies: p+q = 1 ­ Genotype frequencies: p2+2pq+q2=1 2.   When alleles are transmitted via meiosis and random combination of gametes, their         frequencies do not change over time       ­     For evolution to occur, some other factor or factors must come into play The Hardy–Weinberg principle makes predictions based on these assumptions: 1. Random mating 2. No natural selection 3. No genetic drift (random allele frequency changes) 4. No gene flow 5. No mutation


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.