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Social Exchange Theory(FAD2230)

by: Michaela Maynard

Social Exchange Theory(FAD2230) FAD2230

Marketplace > Florida State University > FAD2230 > Social Exchange Theory FAD2230
Michaela Maynard
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

This is material from class that is going to be on the exam, and is not explained well in the textbook. This is the material students will be responsible for on the test.
Family Relationships
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Ferraro in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
FAD2230 1/25/2016 Social exchange theory  Social exchange theory o Theory(Our “lens” of families)  Provide basic assumptions about nature and society  Range from macro to micro perspective  Based in utilitarian thinking  Rational choice and social exchange framework o Utility: ability of something got satisfy needs or wants, the quality or stats of being useful/profitable/beneficial o Rooted on utilitarianism- philosophical perspective that suggests that individuals rationally weigh the rewards and costs associated with behavioral choices o Utilitarian thinking  Social exchange theory and rationale choice theory  Share many of the same core concepts, assumptions, and propositions (both rooted in utilitarian thinking)  F. Ivan Nye’s (1979) application of Exchange Theory is rooted in these theories  For our purposes we will work from this interpretation and discuss the application of “Exchange Theory”  The organization of a theory o Assumption  A premise that must be accepted o Concept  Perceived pattern or regularity that exists within a theory o Proposition  A mechanism which links concepts  Exchange theory o Examines motivation (e.g.- what propels a person to act?)  Why would you… ask someone on a date/get a divorce/go out/go to family reunion/etc.? o Assumptions  Methodological individualism- (the individual is real) individual actions reflect society and social structure  Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual actors motivation  Why did you do that?  Actors are motivated by self-interests  Which option has the most benefit to me personally?  Actors are rational  Assumes we can calculate the ratio of costs to the rewards o Concepts  Rewards and costs  Profit or maximizing utility  Comparison level (CL) and comparison level for alternatives (CL+)  Comparing your situation/goal to another’s situation  Rationality (value of rewards changes)  Exchanges and equity- decisions are not made in isolation  Human capital and social capital- what is gained from interaction  Generalizable sources of rewards o Propositions  Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit  Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards seek to minimize costs- run red light or be more late to work  What does exchange theory tell us about family? o Voluntaristic notion- we have choices, so when we engage in a relationship or a family, it was because we wanted to or that was our best option o Thus families and having kids must in some way be rewarding  Applying exchange theory to families and intimate relationships o How can exchange theory be used to understand/interpret actors behavior? o What assumptions, concepts, or propositions can you identify? o Based on exchange theory, make a prediction about what the individual/couple/family might do next 1/27/16  Symbolic interactionism framework o Symbolic interaction  Key word: symbol  Symbols can be anything that carry shared meaning  Pay attention to how events and things are interpreted  Foundation- George Herbert Mead o It is all about signs, symbols, and meaning  Not static- does not stay the same, it will change over time  Ex. “Groovy” then, “on fleek” now o Symbol- any sign agreed upon by convention  The symbol system must be relatively stable to achieve agreement o By sharing common symbols, humans can adapt to and survive their environment  Assumptions o Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the actor  When looking at a specific behavior, we must understand the situation as perceived by acotr o Actors define the meaning of context and situation  Ex- actor is running from stampede. The situation is perceived as dangerous o Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine o Society precedes the individual  Concepts o The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me” (how others might see me)  Looking glass self- the notion that the individual is capable of perceiving how their behaviors are viewed and that this information informs the self o Feedback loop  1- action  2- reaction (actual outcome)  3- Notice reaction  4- Internal change (as a result of noticing reaction to own action in comparison with a pre-set criteria or desired income  EX- Anthony is lecturing (1) half the class is on FB (2) Anthony notices they are bored (3) so he uses a personal example to get their attention (4) o Socialization is the process by which we acquire the symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture o Role- the place of an individual, that he/she take within a situation, group or society  To participate in a role means it is expected that one must follow the rules of that role  Roles should be clear  Role strain is when individuals do not have enough resources to enact a role or roles  Ex- juggling many roles or having a strain on just one o Identity is formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays  Society defines your identity based on the meaning placed on roles  Individuals organize roles into a hierarchy in each situation  Enacting role of student while in class  Propositions that tell us something about families o Proposition is a mechanism that links concepts o Quality of role enactment (behavior) in a relationship affects satisfaction with that relationship  Quality of behavior affects satisfaction in relationship o The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment (behavior)  The clearer the expectations the better the behavior o The more individuals perceive consensus in their expectations about a role, the less their role strain  Consistency  Applying symbolic interactionism to families and intimate relationships o How can symbolic interaction theory be used to understand/interpret their behavior?  She perceives his roles very differently than he sees himself  Her perception: school teacher with cancer  His perception: independent, dangerous  He’s trying to balance the husband/father role with the role of provider o What assumptions, concepts, or, propositions can you identify?  Feedback loop  The self 1/29/16  Life course developmental theory  Life course developmental framework o 3 complimentary theories  Individual life span theory- individual development within context, how an individual is shaped  Family developmental theory- patterns and changes within family, dynamic  Life course theory- specific stages o It is about STAGE not age  Assumptions o Developmental processes are inevitable and important in understanding family o The family group is affected by ALL the levels of analysis o Time is multidimensional  Always moving forward through time, cant go back in time  Social process time- specific markers used to define stages  Marker- specific events that occur that impact the family (marriage, birth, death)  Concepts o Family changes and development o Positions (mother, sister, aunt etc.), norms (don’t have incest!), and roles (norms attached to a kinship position, the place that an individual takes within a family, mother, nurturer)  Stage graded o Events- any significant occurrence that has meaning to a family (birth, death, marriage) o Family stages - what goes on within a family over a period of time (beginning duration ending) o Transitions- the points of beginning or end (occurs through an event)  On or off time  Off time ex- having a child before graduating high school o Developmental tasks  Sensorimotor (0-2 years)  Preoperational (2-6 yrs.)  Concrete operational (7-12yrs)  Formal operational (12-adult yrs.) o Period, age, cohort  9/11(terrorism) and tech are important in our generation o Family life course- progression of steps (start to end point)  Family life course stages o Married couple without children o Child bearing families (oldest birth to 30 months) o Families with preschool children (oldest child 30 months to 6 years) o Families with school age children (oldest child 6-13yrs) o Families with teens (oldest child 13-20 years) o Families with launching centers(first child gone to last child leaving home) o Middle-aged parents (empty nest to retirement) o Aging family members (retirement to death)  Propositions o Families are more likely to experience disruptions when internal family norms deviate from institutional family norms o When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of sync with family development, more likely disruption will occur (generally bad outcomes) o Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the current stage and duration of time spent in that stage  Determined by age of oldest child  Application o Couple from up- their course through life 2/1/16 IClicker Q- Grandma Jane says TV will rot child’s brain. Mom disagrees (a period effect) IClicker Q- social process time refers to an understanding of the passage of time based upon (specific family markers)- birth, death, etc. IClicker Q- Which is macro level? (NOT social exchange, symbolic interaction, development theory)  Systems Framework o General systems theory (1930s-40s) o First application to the family  Toward a theory of Schizophrenia (1956)  Notion that the schizophrenic individual is a symptom of the family system pathology rather than an individual pathology  Double bind o Root of the term “dysfunctional family” o Whole is greater than the sum of its parts  Members influence the family system  Assumptions o All parts of the system are interconnected o Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole o A systems behavior affects its environment and in turn the environment affects the systems o “Systems” are not reality (heuristics)  Practical application to the study of families. Not saying there is a specific system that exists  Concepts o System- a set of elements in interaction with each other so that what affects one element affects all other elements o Boundaries- Two types  1.) System and environment  2.) Between members of the system  Degree of permeability- refers to how open or closed the boundaries may be o Rules of transformation- rules about how information is exchanged o Feedback  Ex.- child gets a bad grade on a test, mom and dad help him (input) and child gets better grade (output) o Equilibrium  Homeostasis (Ex- air conditioner) o Subsystems  Sibling relationship within family system  Don’t appear in isolation- can impact other subsystems and system o System levels  First order- basic processes  Second order- very complex processes that occur within a system and can affect first order  Comparator  Propositions that tell us about families o The adaptability of the family system is…  Positively related to resources of the system  Negatively related to conflict and tension in the system o Second-order goals define the priorities among first-order goals, BUT they are less likely to be revised and abandoned  Second order process(being a good parent), first order process (specific parenting behavior)  Applying family systems example 1 o Everybody loves Raymond o Mom and dad are mad at each other. Mom and Dad are both mad at grandpa o Naming specific subsystem exchanges in the whole family system o Input and output effects  Output- Michael’s story  Input- shocked/embarrassed reaction of parents/family  Applying family systems example 2 o Debra explains subsystem dynamics between family members  Very negative o Degree of Permeability- nuclear family and grandparents is very open o Homeostasis- interactions (venting) o Comparator- mismatch between first and second level processes


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