Chapter 3.3 MSCI 302
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Stephens on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 302 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Abel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Marine Science at Coastal Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 3.3: Photosynthesis and Primary Production I. Phytoplankton and cyanobacteria account for 95% A. sea grass, algae, etc. B. 40-50% of photosynthesis in the world comes from the oceans II. Primary Production A. production of new plant material through photosynthesis B. the synthesis and storage of organic molecules during the growth and reproduction of photosynthetic organisms C. rate of formation of energy-rich molecules from inorganic materials 1. measured in g C/m^2/yr D. gross production— total amount of organic matter E. net production— amount of production left to support other trophic levels; amount left after respiration F. productivity— 1. the rate of production per unit time per area or volume 2. primary productivity— productivity due to photosynthesis G. food chain efﬁciency— the amount of energy retracted at each trophic level divided by the amount of energy supplied to that level; usually around 10% H. Measuring primary production: 1. water samples taken from 10 m depth increments kept in light and dark bottles at original depths 2. after set period of time oxygen is measured as proxy for glucose production 3. light bottles— represent respiration plus photosynthesis; net production 4. dark bottles— represent respiration with no photosynthesis 5. gross production= dark-light 6. critical depth— gross production= 0 7. compensation depth— net production= 0 I. Factors that affect Primary Production: 1. grazing— in marine communities, grazers can occur at such high concentrations that phytoplankton can be wiped out in a day 2. nutrients— a surplus can cause blooms a) lowest at the surface because they are constantly used b) silicate, nitrate, phosphate c) regeneration— due to mixing (turbulence), upwelling, and convective mixing (due to seasonal changes) 3. light— sufﬁcient intensity only in limited photic zone a) too much light can decrease photosynthesis b) pigments that allow the most light absorption will show (ex: green , re, and brown algae) 4. latitudes— a) polar: (1)highest production in summer (2)stable, warm top layer (3)not affected by nutrients— light limited b) temperate: (1)varies seasonally (a) summer— lots of light (b) spring— lots of mixing leads to high nutrients (c) fall and winter— light decreases (2) both light and nutrient limited c) tropics and subtropics: (1) abundant sun throughout the year (2) no sediment load or nutrients= clear waters (3) moderate increase of solar energy in the summer= small increase of production
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