New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

SPHHRNG 2230: Intro: Communications and Communication Disorders

by: Alexa Notetaker

SPHHRNG 2230: Intro: Communications and Communication Disorders SPHHRNG 2230 (Speech and Hearing Science, Amy Pratt)

Alexa Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes covered in week 4 of lecture. This material will be on the first exam.
Intro: Communication and Communication Disorders
Amy Pratt
Class Notes
Speech and Hearing 2230
25 ?




Popular in Intro: Communication and Communication Disorders

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPHHRNG 2230 (Speech and Hearing Science, Amy Pratt) at Ohio State University taught by Amy Pratt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro: Communication and Communication Disorders in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.

Similar to SPHHRNG 2230 (Speech and Hearing Science, Amy Pratt) at OSU


Reviews for SPHHRNG 2230: Intro: Communications and Communication Disorders


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/03/16
W4  Chapter  7:  Language  Development   Components  of  Language:     •   Language  is  made  up  of  skills  described  in  terms  of  form,  content  and   use   o   Form-­‐  phonology,  syntax  and  morphology     o   Content-­‐  Meaning  and  semantics  (vocabulary)   o   Use-­‐  pragmatics,  such  as  rules  of  social  discourses  and  speaker’s   purpose  for  communication     FORM:     •   Phonology-­‐  the  study  of  speech  sounds.  Includes  rules  for  combining   speech  sounds  to  form  sentences     o   44  phonemes  in  English  language  (IPA)     o   Finite  number  of  sound  combinations     o   /st/  beginning  or  end  of  a  word     o   what  about  /str/?     §   Only  at  the  beginning  of  words   §   Not  taught  to  kids,  it’s  acquired     •   Syntax-­‐  the  structure  of  sentences  (very  rigid)   o   Rules  by  which  words  may  be  combined  into  grammatically   acceptable  sentences         •   Morphology-­‐  how  meaning  is  represented  by  the  use  of  words,  affixes,   grammar  tenses  and  plurality   o   Morpheme-­‐  smallest  unit  of  a  language  that  has  meaning.  Can   consist  of  a  whole  word,  a  suffix,  or  prefix.       Happy-­‐  free  morpheme  because  it  is  able  to  stand  on  its  own   Un  &  -­‐ness-­‐  bound  morphemes         2     Acquisition  of  Morphology:     •   Brown’s  stages  (1973)     •   Acquisition  of  morphology  follows  predictable  stages  that  mirror   overall  language  development.     •   Stage   •   MLU   •     •   Stage  I   •   1.75   •   Single  words.  Starting  to  put  noun-­‐verb   sequences  together.  “Car  go.”   •   Stage  II   •   2.25   •   Starts  to  use  bound  morphemes.  “Cars   going.”  (4  morphemes  in  this)     •   Stage  III   •   2.75   •   Questions  and  imperatives.  “  That  a  car?”     “  Come  here.”   •   Stage  IV   •   3.5   •   Complex  sentences.  “  Where’s  the  car   going?”   •   Stage  V   •   4   •   More  advances  functions.  “Mom  and  Dad   can  come.”   •   MLU-­‐  “mean  length  of  utterance”-­‐  used  like  a  quantifiable  length  of   language  assessment     •   Ages  in  each  stage  varies  from  child  to  child,  but  every  child  goes   through  these  stages       CONTENT:     •   Content-­‐  Meaning  of  individual  words  and  word  combinations     •   Semantics-­‐  the  study  of  word  meanings     o   Continues  to  grow  throughout  life     3   •   Children  learn  language  by  attaching  meaning  to  a  particular   phonological  sequence  they  have  been  hearing     •   Context  is  critical     o   Denotative:  literal  meaning  of  a  word     o   Connotative:  reflect  concepts  associated  with  words,  but  may   imply  or  suggest  additional  information  or  meaning.  Emotion   associated  with  a  word.     USE:     •   Pragmatics-­‐  how  we  use  words  in  different  situations;  social  rules   o   Examples:  different  interaction  styles  at  home  versus  at  school   versus  at  church     §   Personal  examples:     •   Don’t  curse  when  you  have  to  be  respectful     •   Child-­‐directed  speech   o   Children  learn  to  adjust  the  use  of  language  forms  to  meet  the   demand  of  different  situations   •   Children  with  pragmatic  language  disorders  have  difficulty:     o   Making  requests     o   Answering  questions     o   Initiating  conversation     o   Poor  turn-­‐taking  skills     o   Frequently  comment  off-­‐topic     §   Autism  is  an  example  of  a  disorder  that  tends  to  include   difficulty  with  pragmatics             4   Speech  Language  Development:     •   The  most  significant  and  dramatic  developments  in  language   acquisition  take  place  between  birth  and  6  years  of  age     o   Especially  changes  in  syntax/semantics  and  phonology     •   There  are  changes  in  communication  that  continue  to  occur  with  aging     o   NEGATIVE  changes  in  voice,  fluency,  hearing,  language,  and   memory  are  seen  in  older  adult  populations     o   POSITIVE  changes  in  aspects  like  vocabulary       REVIEW  FROM  MONDAY:  Speech  Sound  Development-­‐  Pre-­‐linguistic  Stage:   •   Vegetative  vocalizations  (1-­‐2  months)-­‐  coughs,  burps,  crying   o   Primary  vocal  tract   o   Result  from  other  activities  of  the  vocal  tract;  nonvolitiona l   initially;  increasingly  differentiated     o   Reflex  at  first   •   Cooing/going  stage  (about  3  months)-­‐  CV’s  are  approximated     o   Able  to  produce  all  speech  sounds  in  adults   •   Expansion  stage/marginal  babbling  (3-­‐8  months)-­‐  Vocal  play  (grunts,   squeals,  yells,  and  raspberries)     o   Vowels  and  closed  sounds  (stops)  combined  to  form  primitive   syllables     o   Babble  in  their  language’s  fluency  patterns  (speech  community   has  effect)   •   Canonical  babbling  (5-­‐10  months)-­‐  speech  behaviors  generally   referred  to  as  “babbling.”  Well-­‐timed,  often  repetitive  patterns  of   consonant-­‐vowel  utterances  that  sound  quite  like  speech.     •   Nonverbal  (7-­‐11  months)-­‐  consists  mostly  of  gestures   5   o   Considerable  variability  in  the  age  of  onset  and  duration  o f  this   period     o   The  child  uses  gestures  (ex:  pointing)  and  physical  regulation  of   adults  (ex:  taking  their  hand  and  moving  toward  something  the   child  wants;  pushing  the  adult  away)  to  make  needs  known     o   Toward  the  end  of  this  period,  gestures,  etc.  begin  to   be   accompanied  by  words     •   Single-­‐word  (9-­‐18  months)-­‐  Vocalizations  replaced  with   approximations  of  adult  words     o   CV  combinations  (“ba”  for  “ball”)     o   Later  CVCV  (“dada”  for  “daddy”)     o   First  words  will  appear,  which  reflect  his/her  environment     §   Semantic  knowledge  is  restricted  in  lower  income  homes     o   Phonology  is  simple  because  they  are  not  able  to  make  complex   sounds   o   Once  children  have  approximately  50  words,  they  will  begin  to   combine  them  together     •   Multi-­‐word  (12-­‐24  months)-­‐  Starting  to  have  short  conversations  but   we  don’t  always  understand  what  he/she  is  saying     o   Why?     §   Because  they  have  not  developed  all  speech  sounds  yet   (substitution  strategies  still  at  play)     o   Mostly  single  words,  but  2  utterances  are  emerging:  “Where   kitty?”  “Go  bye-­‐bye?”  “What’s  that?”  “More  cookies”  “No  juice”   “Mommy  book”     o   Uses  many  different  consonant  sounds  at  the  beginning  of   words     o   Points  to  a  few  body  parts  when  asked  (high  comprehension)   6   o   Follows  simple  commands  and  understands  simple  questions   (“Roll  the  ball”  “Kiss  the  baby”  “Where’s  your  shoe?”)     o   Listens  to  simple  stories,  songs,  and  rhymes     o   Points  to  pictures  in  a  book  when  named     •   24-­‐36  Months  (2-­‐3  years)-­‐     o   Understands  differences  in  meaning  (“go/stop”   “in/out”  ”big/little”  “up/down”)     o   Follows  two  requests  (“Get  the  book  and  put  it  on  the  table”)     o   Listens  to  and  enjoys  hearing  stories  for  longer  periods  of  time     o   Has  a  word  for  almost  everything     o   Uses  two-­‐  or  three-­‐words  to  talk  about  and  ask  for  things     o   Uses  k,  g,  f,  t,  d,  and  n  sounds     o   Speech  is  understood  by  familiar  listeners  most  of  the  time   o   Often  asks  for  or  directs  attention  to  objects  by  naming  them     §   Joint  attention     •   36-­‐48  months  (3-­‐4  years)-­‐     o   Hears  you  when  you  call  from  another  room   (ability  to   discriminate  sounds)     o   Answers  simple  “who?”,  “What?”,  “where?”  and  “why?”     §   Why  are  a  little  trickier     o   Talks  about  activities  at  school  or  at  friends’  homes   §   Able  to  talk  about  things  that  aren’t  immediately  in  front   of  them       o   People  outside  of  the  family  are  usually  understood  by  child’s   speech     o   Uses  a  lot  of  sentences  that  have  4  or  more  words   (MLU)   o   Usually  talks  easily  without  repeating  syllables  or  words     7   •   48-­‐60  months  (4-­‐5  years)-­‐     o   Pays  attention  to  a  short  story  and  answers  simple  questions   about  them   o   Hears  and  understands  most  of  what  is  said  at  home  and  at   school     o   Uses  sentences  that  give  lots  of  details  (“The  biggest  peach  is   mine”)     §   Morphology  is  close  to  perfect     o   Tells  stories  that  stick  to  topic     o   Communicates  easily  with  other  children  and  adults     o   Says  most  sounds  correctly  except  a  few  like  l,  s,  r,  v,  z,  ch,  sh,   and  th.     o   Says  rhyming  words     o   Names  some  letters  and  numbers     o   Uses  the  same  grammar  as  the  rest  of  the  family     §   Nature  vs.  Nurture  debate     •   Nature  (nativists)  believe  that  there  is  a  grammatical   place  in  the  brain.  Language  is  its  own  domain  with  n   effect  of  what’s  around  them  because  people  make   grammatical  mistakes  all  the  time     •   Nurture  believes  that  language  is  all  dependent  on   the  environment  they  are  in  and  they  are  able  to   imitate  the  speech  that  they  hear             8   The  Development  of  Literacy  Skills:     •   Foundations  for  reading  &  writing  begin  in  early  infancy  and  develop   over  time   o   Book  experience  is  most  common  early  exposure  to  written   language     o   Children  whose  parents  read  to  them  will  have  more  developed   language  skills     §   Eventually  lead  to  better  readers  &  writers     o   “Reading  to  your  Baby”  video     •   Social  routines  are  developed     o   Anticipation  of  words     o   How  to  hold  and  open  a  book     o   Turning  pages     •   The  experience  with  books  teaches  children  that  letters  have  names   and  sounds  that  form  words.  Those  words  correspond  to  pictures  they   see  on  the  page     Early  Literacy  Skills:     •   "Emergent  Literacy”-­‐refers  to  the  emerging  body  of  skills  that  underlie   listening  comprehension  and  word  recognition  and  are  consistently   predictive  of  later  reading  achievement     9     •   Environment  exposure  to  print  also  reinforces  literacy  development     o   The  words  “STOP”  on  a  red  octagon     o   Other  words  young  children  encounter  in  his/her  environment:     §   Ohio  State,  Oreos,  iPhone,  messages,  etc.   •   Must  understand  that  print  is  a  symbol  and  it  stands   for  something               10  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.