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Kinesiology Week 2 Notes

by: Maria D'Angelo

Kinesiology Week 2 Notes MOV 300

Maria D'Angelo
GPA 3.8

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Bones slides
Dr. Krisanne Chapin
Class Notes
Chapin, MOV 300, Kinesiology
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This 54 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria D'Angelo on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MOV 300 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Krisanne Chapin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Cinema And Media Studies at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Understanding  Bones:  Objec▯ves • Explain  how  material  contents  and  structural   organiza▯on  of  bone  affect  its  ability  to   withstand  mechanical  loads.   • Describe  normal  growth  and  matura▯on  of   bone.   • Describe  the  effects  of  exercise  and  of   weightlessness  on  bone.   • Explain  the  significance  of  osteoporosis.   •of  mechanical  loading  and  common  bone   forms   injuries.   Adult  Skeleton • 206  bones   • Axial  skeleton   • 80  bones   • Appendicular  skeleton   • 126  bones   Purpose  of  Skeleton • Protec▯on  of  heart,  lungs,  brain,  etc.     • Support  to  maintain  posture   • Movement  by  serving  as  points  of   a▯achment  for  muscles  and  ac▯ng  as  levers   • Mineral  storage  such  as  calcium  &   phosphorus   • Hemopoiesis   • process  of  blood  cell  forma▯on  in  the  red  bone   marrow   Shapes  of  Bones • Long  bones   • Long  cylindrical  sha▯   • Ex.  Phalanges,  metatarsals,   radius,  ulna,  humerus    femur,   • Short  bones   • Small  cubical  shaped,   solid  bones   • Ex.  Carpals,  tarsals   Shapes  of  Bones • Flat  bones   • Usually  have  a  curved  surface  &   a▯ach  to  very  thin    tendons   • Ex.  ilium,  ribs,  sternum,  clavicle,   &  scapula   • Irregular  bones   • Spine,  ischium,  pubis,  maxilla   • Sesamoid  bones   • Small  bones  imbedded  within  the   tendon  of  a  musculotendinous   unit   • the  mechanical  advantage  of     musculotendinous  unit   Bone  Makeup • Calcium  carbonate  and   • water   Calcium  phosphate   • 25-­‐30%  bone  weight   • 60-­‐70%  bone  weight   • Contributes  to  bone   • Gives  bone  its  s▯ffness   strength   • Primary  determinant  for   • Provides  transporta▯on   compressive  strength.   for  nutrients  and  wastes   • Other  minerals   • Collagen-­‐  protein   • Gives  bone  its  flexibility   • Sodium     • Contributes  to  tensile   • Fluoride   strength   Bone  Types • Categories  of  bone  based  on   porosity:   • Cor▯cal  bone  -­‐  compact   mineralized  bones  with  low   porosity;  be▯er  at  withstanding   stress   Cortical bone •  Sha▯s  of  long  bones   Trabecular bone     • Trabecular  (or  cancellous)  bone-­‐   less  compact  mineralized  bone   with  high  porosity  that  is  be▯er   at  withstanding  strain     •  Found  in  the  ends  of  long  bones   and  vertebrae   Mechanical  loading  basics • absorbed  by  the  ▯ssues  of  the  body   &   • loads    or  external  forces  may  cause  these   • Internal  forces   • Muscles  can  ac▯vely  generate  internal  force   • Tension  in  tendons,  connec▯ve  ▯ssues,  ligaments   and  joints  capsules  may  generate  passive  internal   forces   • Internal  forces  can   • connec▯ve  ▯ssues  islocate  joints,  disrupt  muscles  &   Mechanical  loading  basics • External  forces  produced  from  outside  the   body   • Gravity  ,  iner▯a  or  direct  contact   • All  ▯ssues,  in  varying  degrees,  resist  changes   in  their  shape   • To  prevent  injury  or  damage  from  ▯ssue   deforma▯on  the  body  must  be  used  to   absorb  energy  from  both  internal  &  external   forces   Mechanical  loading  basics • It  is  advantageous  to  absorb  force  over  larger   aspects  of  our  body  rather  than  smaller  and   to  spread  the  absorp▯on  rate  over  a  greater   period  of  ▯me   • Stronger  and  healthier  ▯ssues  are  more  likely   to  withstand  excessive  mechanical  loading  &   the  resultant  excessive  ▯ssue  deforma▯on   Mechanical  loading  basics • mechanical  loading  may  result  from   different  types  of  loads   Composi▯on  and  Structure  of  Bone   • Bone  is   Anisotropic   r • it  has  different t strength  and   r O l S s▯ffness   n E depending  on   u P e O N the  direc▯on  of  t C S the  load   S E R T E S The  Effects  of  Loading • stress–  load  applied   • Strain  (deforma▯on)  –  change  in  shape   • This  rela▯onship  is  described  in  the  Stress/ Strain  Curve     Stress/Strain  Curve   Brittle Material Elastic Limit Ductile material Load (Stress)   Deformation (Strain) Elastic & Plastic responses Elastic Plastic region region ) a o fracture/ ( failure s r S elastic – can return plastic response leads to fracturing (cannot return) Strain (Deformation) Stress  –  Strain  Curve Stress-­‐Strain  Curve Cor▯cal  bone   Cancellous/trabecular   Tendons     Ligament   Car▯lage   Stress-­‐Strain  Curve • Anisotropic  -­‐  Bone   responds  to  different   loads  differently   • Compression>  tension   • Tension  >  Shear     • Loads  applied  at   higher  rate   • Bone  becomes  s▯ffer   • Sustains  higher  load   • St•  What  if  it  breaks?   Adapted  from  Nordin  M  &  Frankel  VH  (2001).  Basic  Biomechanics  of  the  Musculoskeletal  System.(p.54)   Repe▯▯ve  vs.  Acute  Loads • Repe▯▯ve  loading   • Subacute,  rela▯vely  low  magnitude   • Microtrauma     • Carpal  tunnel,  stress  fractures   • Acute  loading   • Single  force  of  sufficient  magnitude  to  cause   injury   • Macrotrauma     • Car  accidents   Typical  Bony  Features • Diaphysis–  long  cylindrical   sha▯   • Cortex  -­‐  hard,  dense  compact   bone  forming  walls  of  diaphysis   • Periosteum  -­‐  dense,  fibrous   membrane  covering  outer   surface  of  diaphysis   Typical  Bony  Features • Endosteum   • lines  the  inside  of  the   cortex   • Remodelling  bones  and   releasing  minearals   •–  between  walls  of  y   diaphysis,  containing   yellow  or  fa▯y  marrow   Typical  Bony  Features • Epiphysis     • cancellous  (spongy  or  trabecular)     bone   • Epiphyseal  plate   • Growth  plate   • thin  car▯lage  plate  separates   diaphysis  &  epiphyses   • Ar▯cular  (hyaline)  car▯lage     • covering  the  epiphysis  to  provide   cushioning  effect  &  reduce  fric▯on   Bone  Growth  &  Development • Endochondral  bones   • grow  rapidly  into  structures  shaped  similar  to  the  bones   which  they  will  eventually  become   • growth  con▯nues  and  gradually  undergoes  significant   change  to  develop  into  long  bone   Embryonic   Childhood   &  fetal  dev.   &  Adolescence   Bone  Growth  &  Development • Longitudinal   Growth   •  At  the  epiphyseal  plate,  car▯lage  transformed   into  bone   •  Con▯nues  as  long  as  epiphyseal  plates  are   open   •  Stops  ~18  yrs  of  age     •  can  be  seen  up  to  25  yrs  of  age   • Circumferen▯al   Growth   •  Diameter  increases  throughout  lifespan   •  Most  rapid  growth  before  adulthood   •  Internal  layer  of  periosteum  builds  new   concentric  layers  on  old  layers   Newborn 2 yrs 17-18 yrs 30-40 yrs 80 years Bone  Growth Car▯lage  replaced  bone   None  remodeled   Car▯lage  growth  in   epiphyseal  plate   Bone  Growth  &  Development Bone  Response  to  Stress • Wolff’s  Law   • Bone  adapts  (grows)  according  to  stress  applied   to  it.   • &  magnitude  of  forces  that  are  habitually  applied   to  them   • Form  Follows  Func▯on  or  Func▯on  Determines   Structure   Bone  Response  to  Stress • Specialized  cells  called   osteoblasts  build  new   osteoclasts  resorb  bone   ▯ssue   •  Osteoblasts  –  “Blasts  Build   Bone”   • resorb  bone    cells  that   • mechanical  stress  (or  lack   predominance  of  o  a   osteoblast  or  osteoclast   ac▯vity,  respec▯vely.   Bone  Response  to  Stress • Bone  mineral  density  is  propor▯onal  to  body   weight   • Body  weight  provides  most  constant  mechanical   stress   • Think:  weight  gain  or  loss  and  its  effect  on  bone   density   • Rank  6  different  athletes  according  to  bone   density  of  the  femoral  head   Wolff’s  Law  in  Ac▯on Wolff’s  Law  in  Ac▯on • Amputee   • much  different  than   sound  side   prosthe▯c  side   • Bone  spur   • Excessive  forces  causing   “spurs”  to  develop   • Examples  from  Hall   • Infant  born  without  a  ▯bia,   fibula  remodeled   • but  5  finger,    sing  all   •  A▯er  32  years,  finger  remodeled  to   contralateral  3  finger  r  to   Wolff’s  Law  in  Ac▯on:  Bone  Markings • Processes  that  form  joints   • E.g.,  condyles,  facets,  heads   • Processes  to  which   ligaments,  muscles  or   tendons  a▯ach   • e.g.,  Epicondyle,  spine,   trochanter   • Cavi▯es  (depressions)  -­‐   including  opening  &   grooves   • e.g.,  fossa,  foramen,  sulcus   Bone  Hypertrophy • mass  due  to  predominance  of     osteoblas▯c  ac▯vity.   • In  response  to  regular  physical   ac▯vity   • Ex:  tennis  players  have  muscular   arm.  one  hypertrophy  in  playing   • more  mineraliza▯on  of  the  bone.  he   • Propor▯onal  to  amount  of  impact  of   ac▯vity/sport   • Physically  ac▯ve>  density  than   sedentary   Bone  Atrophy • A  decrease  in  bone  mass  resul▯ng  form  a   predominance  of  osteoclast  ac▯vity   • Results  in  decreased   • Bone  calcium   • Bone  weight  and  strength   • Seen  in  bed  –  ridden  pa▯ents,  sedentary   elderly,  and  astronauts   Bone  Atrophy • Astronauts   • Overall  cause  is  unknown   • Tend  to  have  nega▯ve  calcium  ra▯o   • Increase  in  calcium  excre▯on    • Hypothesis:   • Changes  in  bone  blood  flow  due  to  difference  in  gravita▯onal  field   • To  help  maintain  bone  and  muscle,  astronauts   exercise  with  straps  holding  them  down  on   specialized  treadmill  surfaces   Bone  Changes  in  Aging • Progressive  loss  of  collagen  and  related   increase  in  bone  bri▯leness   • Increasing  loss  of  bone  substance   • Increasing  porosity  of  both  bone  types   •leads  to  weakness  integra▯on  of  trabeculae   • A▯er  age  60,  ~90%  of  all  fractures  in  adults   are  osteoporosis-­‐related   Bone  Changes  in  Aging • Women   • Peak  bone  mineral  content:  33-­‐40  yoa   • 0.5%-­‐1.0%  loss  per  year  following  age  50  or   menopause   • 6.5%  loss  per  year  post-­‐menopause  for  first  5-­‐8   years   • By  ~75  yoa,  females  have  50%  of  the  bone  mass   at  30  yoa   • Men   • Peak  bone  mineral  content:  19-­‐33  yoa   • Lose  bone  at  2/3  the  rate  of  females   Bones:  Men  vs.  Women Osteoporosis • Defini▯on-­‐  A  disorder  involving  decreased  bone  mass   and  strength  with  one  or  more  resul▯ng  fractures.   • Starts  as  osteopenia-­‐  reduced  bone  mineral  density   that  predisposes  to  fractures.   • Type  I  Osteoporosis  =  post-­‐  menopausal  Osteoporosis   • Affects  about  40%  of  women  over  50   • Type  II  Osteoporosis  =  Age-­‐Associated  Osteoporosis   • Affects  most  women  and  men  over  70   • Differences  between  men  and  women:  Men  reach  higher   peak  bone  mass  and  strength  in  young  adulthood   Osteoporosis • Symptoms:   • Painful,  deforming  and   debilita▯ng  crush  fractures   • Usually  of  lumbar  vertebrae  from   height  loss    ac▯vity,  which  leads  to   •  Es▯mated  26%  of  women  over  50  suffer   from  these  fractures   • Back  pain  most  common   • Thoracic  Kyphosis  –   “Dowager’s  Hump”   • Due  to  body  weight  being  anterior  to   spine  o▯en  wedge  shaped  fx’s.   Osteoporosis  Treatment • Risk  factors  for   • Easier  to  prevent  than   osteoporosis   to  treat   • Physical  inac▯vity   • Adequate  Vitamin  D   • Excessive  thinness   • Increased  dietary  calcium   • Tobacco  smoking   • Hormone  replacement   • Deficiencies  in  estrogen,   therapy   calcium,  and  vitamin  D   • Weight  bearing  physical   • Excessive  consump▯on  of   ac▯vity   protein  and  caffeine   • Gene▯c  factors   Osteoporosis  Treatment • Future  use  of  pharmacologic  agents   • May  s▯mulate  bone  forma▯on   • Low  doses  of  growth  factors  to  s▯mulate   osteoblast  recruitment  and  promote  bone   forma▯on   • Best  Bet:   • Engaging  in  regular  physical  ac▯vity   • Avoiding  the  lifestyle  (risk)  factors  that  nega▯vely   affect  bone  mass.   • decreased  bone  density  5-­‐10%  by  the  ▯me  of  menopause.   Female  Athlete  Triad • Disordered  Ea▯ng   • Affects  1-­‐10%  of  all  adolescent  and  college-­‐age   women   • Displayed  in  ~62%  female  athletes   • Mostly  in  endurance  or  appearance-­‐related  sports   • Amenorrhea   • Cessa▯on  of  the  menses   • O▯en  a  side-­‐effect  of  disordered  ea▯ng   • Osteoporosis   • Decrease  in  bone  mass  and  strength   Ea▯ng  Disorders • Rela▯vely  common  among  girls  15-­‐19   • Anorexia  Nervosa  Symptoms   • Body  weight  15%  below  normal  for  age/height   • Intense  fear  of  gaining  weight,  disturbed  body  image   • Bulimia  Nervosa  Symptoms   • Minimum  of  2  ea▯ng  binges  a  week  for  a  few  months   • Feeling  a  lack  of  control  in  binging   • Regular  use  of  self-­‐induced  vomi▯ng,  laxa▯ves,   diure▯cs,  strict  die▯ng,  excessive  exercise   Amenorrhea • 3-­‐5%  of  pre-­‐menopausal  women  in  US  have   amenorrhea   • Primary  amenorrhea  –delayed  menarche   beyond  age  16   • Less  than  1%  of  girls  in  overall  popula▯on   • Up  to  22%  of  girls  in  cheerleading,  diving,  gymnas▯cs   • Secondary  amenorrhea  –  absence  of  3-­‐6  cycles   • 2-­‐5%  of  general  popula▯on   • 69%  of  dancers,  65%  of  long  distance  runners   Amenorrhea • Estrogen  deficiency     • Increases  bone  resorp▯on   • Disordered  ea▯ng  →  energy  deficiency  →   altered  bone  metabolism  and  →  decreased   bone  density   • Amenorrhic  pre-­‐menopausal  females  have  an   increased  rate  of  stress  fractures   • Loss  of  bone  may  be  irreversible     • Long  term  implica▯ons?   Bone  Injuries • Fractures-­‐  most  common   • Simple     • Compound   • Avulsion   • Impacted  or  buckled   • Depressed   • Greens▯ck   • Spiral   • Stress   Bone  Injuries • Bone  stronger  in  resis▯ng  compression  than   tension,  so  the  side  loaded  with  tension  will   fracture  first   • Acute  compression  fractures  (in  absence  of   osteoporosis)  is  rare   • Stress  Fractures  occur  when  there  is  no  ▯me   for  repair  process  (osteoblast  ac▯vity)   • layers  of  cor▯cal  bone    in  con▯nuity  of  outer   Epiphyseal  Injuries • Include  injuries  to:   • Car▯laginous  epiphyseal  plate   • Ar▯cular  car▯lage   • Represent  ~  35%  of  all  skeletal  injuries  in   children   • Most  common  in  10-­‐15  year  old  children   • Acute  and  repe▯▯ve  loading  can  injure  growth   plate   • Leads  to  premature  closing  of  epiphyseal  junc▯on   and  termina▯on  of  bone  growth.   Summary • Bone  is  an  important  living  ▯ssue  that  is   con▯nuously  being  remodeled.   • Bone  strength  and  resistance  to  fracture   depend  on  its  material  composi▯on  and   organiza▯onal  structure.   • Bones  con▯nue  to  change  in  density   throughout  the  life  span.  


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