New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 1000 - Week 4 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 4 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 4 Notes
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture and textbook notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
Rollins, psych, Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


Reviews for PSYC 1000 - Week 4 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/03/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 4 February 1­5 Notes from Textbook Sensation and Perception (p. 230­244) ­ Sensation: sensory receptors detect information, which the nervous system  transmits to the brain ­ Perception: processes by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory input ­ Bottom­up processing: start at sensory receptors and works up to higher  levels of processing ­ Top­down processing: constructs perceptions from the sensory input by  drawing on experience and expectations ­ Senses ­ Receive sensory stimulation using specialized receptor cells ­ Transform stimulation into neural impulses ­ Deliver neural information to the brain ­ Transduction: converting one form of energy into another that the brain can use ­ Psychophysics: the study of relationships between detectable physical  energy and its effects on psychological experiences ­ Thresholds ­ Absolute thresholds: minimum stimulation necessary to detect a  particular sensation 50% of the time ­ Subliminal: stimuli below the absolute threshold ­ Signal detection theory: predicts when we detect the presence of a faint  stimulus (assumes there is no absolute threshold) ­ Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain  associations, which predispose one's perception, memory, or response ­ Difference threshold: minimum difference a person can detect between  any two stimuli 50% of the time ­ Increases with the size of the stimulus ­ Weber's law: for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli  must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount) ­ Sensory adaption: diminished sensitivity as a result of constant stimulation ­ Perceptual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another ­ Perceptions are influenced by motivation and emotion Vision ­ Wavelength: distance from one peak to the next ­ Hue: dimension of color determined by the wavelength of light ­ Intensity: amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude ­ Eyes receive light energy that transduce (transform) it into neural messages that  that the brain processes into what we consciously see ­ Pupil: small adjustable opening in eye ­ Iris: muscle around the pupil that dilates or constricts in response to light  intensity ­ Lens: structure behind a pupil that focuses images on the retina ­ Retina: tissue on the inner surface that process visual information ­ Accommodation: the process by which the lens focuses ­ Rods: retinal receptors that detect white, gray, and black,  necessary for peripheral and twilight vision  ­ Cones: retinal receptors that detect color, function in well­lit  conditions (cluster around the fovea) ­ Optic nerve: carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain ­ Blind spot: absence of receptor cells where the optic nerve leaves the eye ­ Young­Helmholtz trichromatic theory: theory that the retina contains three color receptors (red, blue, and green) that can produce the perception of any color ­ Opponent­process theory: theory that opposing retinal processes (red­green,  yellow­blue, and white­black) enable color vision Nonvisual Senses (p. 256­277) Hearing ­ Audition: the sense or act of hearing ­ Frequency: the number of wavelengths that pass a point in a given time ­ Frequency theory: theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the  auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, enabling the recognition of a pitch; best  explains how we sense low pitches ­ Pitch: a tone's experienced highness or lowness (depends on frequency) ­ Place theory: the theory that links the pitch heard to the place where the  cochlea is stimulated; best explains how we sense high pitches ­ Combination of place and frequency theories best explain how we sense  pitches in the intermediate range ­ Amplitude: height of waves, determines loudness ­ Ear ­ Middle ear: chamber with three bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that  concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea ­ Cochlea: tube in the inner ear that triggers nerve impulses ­ Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness): common form of hearing loss  caused by damage to the cochlea or the auditory nerves ­ Conduction hearing loss: caused by damage to the mechanical system that  conducts sound waves to the cochlea ­ Cochlear implant: device for converting sound into electrical signals for the  brain Touch ­ Pain ­ The pain circuit: sensory receptors (nociceptors) respond to stimuli by  sending an impulse to the spinal cord, which passes the message as pain to the brain ­ Biological influences ­ Nociceptors sense hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals ­ Gate­control theory: the theory that the spinal cord contains a  neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or opens and lets them pass to the brain ­ Genetic differences in endorphin production ­ Psychological influences ­ Memory and expectations can inaccurately reflect pain ­ Attention to pain ­ Learning based on experience ­ Social­cultural influences ­ Empathy can make someone feel pain ­ Cultural expectations  ­ Controlling pain ­ Distraction and endorphins can reduce pain ­ Placebo pain relief ­ Virtual­reality pain control tactic for burn victims ­ Body position and movement ­ Kinesthesia: senses position and movement of individual body parts ­ Vestibular sense: the head's sense of body movement and position,  including balance ­ Hypnosis: social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain  perceptions, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur ­ Social influence, selective attention ­ Dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and  behaviors to occur simultaneously with others ­ Posthypnotic suggestion: a suggestion made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized Taste ­ Chemical sense, detected by taste buds on tongue ­ Taste buds reproduce but sensitivity decreases over time ­ Expectations can influence taste Smell ­ Chemical sense, detected by receptor cells on nasal cavity ­ Attractiveness of smells depends on learned association ­ No basic smell receptors ­ Combinations of odor receptors send signals to the brain Sensory interaction: once sense may influence another ­ Embodied cognition: influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and judgments ­ Perception: combination of biological, psychological, and socio­cultural  influences Sensory System Source Receptors Vision Light waves striking the eye Rods and cones in the retina Hearing Sound waves striking the  Cochlear hair cells in the  inner ear inner ear Touch Pressure and temperature on Skin receptors detect pain,  the skin pressure, and temperature Taste Chemical molecules in the  Basic tongue receptors for  mouth sweet, sour, salty, bitter,  and umami Smell Chemical molecules  Millions of receptors at top  breathed in through nose of nasal cavity Body position: kinesthesia Change in position of any  Kinesthetic sensors in  body part, interacting with  joints, tendons, and muscles vision Body movement: vestibular  Movement of fluids in the  Hair­like receptors in the  sense inner ear caused by  semicircular canals and  head/body movement vestibular sacs Notes from Lecture Chapter 6 Anatomy of the eye ­ Cornea: clear outer membrane ­ Pupil: opening (dark part in center) ­ Iris: colored ring of muscle; opens and closes pupil to let light into eye ­ Lens: focuses light entering pupil onto retina ­ Retina: lines back of eye ­ Photoreceptors: sensory receptors for light (detection and transduction) ­ Cones: color and detail (sensitive to wavelength, visual activity) ­ Perform best in well­lit environments ­ Rods: light sensitive, periphery of retina ­ Help us see in low­light conditions Vision ­ Light goes into eye, photoreceptors get excited and send signals forward to  bipolar cells, which send signals to ganglion cells, which form optic nerve  ­ Bipolar cells ­ Ganglion cells ­ Optic nerve: carries visual information into brain ­ Blind spot, no photoreceptors ­ Brain fills in missing information ­ Thalamus, visual cortex (occipital lobe), association areas ­ Theories of color vision ­ Trichromatic theory: most widely accepted color vision theory ­ Explains how color is encoded ­ Three types of cones ­ Blue (short wavelength) ­ Green (medium wavelength) ­ Red/yellow (long wavelength) ­ Ratio of activity ­ Color blindness: inability to see one or more colors; may be  missing one or more cone types, or a cone may be shifted in its sensitivity to light ­ Dogs and cats lack the red/yellow cone ­ Opponent­Process Theory ­ Explains how color information is processed ­ Three pairings of color­sensitive visual elements ­ Red/green ­ Blue/yellow ­ Black/white ­ Inhibit/oppose each other, only one member (the more  active member) of a pair can use a pathway/send messages at a time ­ If one cell has been active for a while, and white light  returns, the other cell takes over and the opposite color is seen ­ Explains afterimages ­ Pairings exist among ganglion cells, etc. ­ Both theories are useful because they explain different things Hearing (audition) ­ Sound waves ­ Repetitive vibration in air pressure ­ Amplitude: loudness, decibels (dB) ­ Force with which molecules are hitting each other ­ Frequency: pitch, hertz ­ Hz: number of waves that pass a point in space per second Anatomy of the Ear ­ Outer ear:  ­ Pinna: funnels sound into ear canal  ­ Ear canal ­ Middle ear ­ Tympanic membrane: eardrum (vibrates with sound) ­ Ossicles: bones that knock into each other ­ Hammer, anvil, stirrup ­ Amplify sound ­ Oval window: vibrates when ossicles vibrate, causes waves in fluid of  cochlea ­ Inner ear ­ Cochlea: causes basilar membrane to vibrate and hair cells to bend ­ Basilar membrane and hair cells (auditory receptors) ­ Hair cells send action potentials to auditory nerve ­ Semicircular canals: help with balance ­ High intensity sounds can rip hair cells off of membrane (damage) Auditory areas in CNS ­ Thalamus ­ Primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe) ­ Association areas Coding Pitch ­ Louder sounds activate more hair cells ­ Place theory ­ Sounds of different pitches cause vibration at different places along  basilar membrane ­ Some lower pitches cause entire basilar membrane to vibrate ­ Theory does not explain how we distinguish low pitches ­ Frequency­matching theory ­ Auditory nerve fires action potentials to match frequency of sound ­ Neurons can only fire 1000 action potentials per second but we can hear  sounds up to 20,000 Hz/second ­ Theory can only explain how we distinguish low pitches Deafness ­ Conduction deafness ­ Damage to middle ear ­ Hearing aids ­ Sensorinerural/nerve deafness ­ Damage to inner ear ­ Cochlear implant Somatosensation: skin senses ­ Thalamus ­­> parietal lobes ­­> somatosensory cortex ­ Touch ­ Temperature ­ Pressure ­ Pain: warns us, protects us from further damage ­ Some people have congenital insensitivity to pain ­ Most die in childhood or early adulthood ­ Emotional/cognitive aspects of pain ­ Stress, depression, and anxiety make pain worse ­ Relaxation, distraction, and optimism decrease pain  ­ Perception ­ Influenced by prior experience, knowledge, expectations, and context ­ Brain imposes meaning on ambiguous stimuli Chapter 3 Consciousness: awareness of things happening around you ­ Mental processing without awareness ­ Priming: when prior exposure to a stimulus influences our behavior  subconsciously ­ Works by activating networks of associations in our minds that  predispose reactions ­ Subliminal stimuli: stimuli that are so faint or weak that we are not  consciously aware of them ­ Affect behavior ­ Priming with subliminal stimuli ­ Subliminal persuasion with subliminal messages/stimuli: not as  effective as consciously perceived messages ­ Attention: a concentration or focusing of mental activity ­ Selective attention: trying to pay attention to just one thing while  ignoring everything else ­ Cocktail party effect: ability to pay attention to one conversation  while many other conversations are happing ­ If your name comes up in another conversation, your  attention is called, so you may be subconsciously monitoring other conversations ­ Divided attention: trying to focus on 2+ things at once ­ Attention is limited ­ Attention failure ­ Change blindness: failure to detect large changes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.