PSYC 1000 - Week 4 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 4 Notes Psyc 1000-04
Popular in Introductory Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
Reviews for PSYC 1000 - Week 4 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/03/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 4 February 15 Notes from Textbook Sensation and Perception (p. 230244) Sensation: sensory receptors detect information, which the nervous system transmits to the brain Perception: processes by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory input Bottomup processing: start at sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing Topdown processing: constructs perceptions from the sensory input by drawing on experience and expectations Senses Receive sensory stimulation using specialized receptor cells Transform stimulation into neural impulses Deliver neural information to the brain Transduction: converting one form of energy into another that the brain can use Psychophysics: the study of relationships between detectable physical energy and its effects on psychological experiences Thresholds Absolute thresholds: minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular sensation 50% of the time Subliminal: stimuli below the absolute threshold Signal detection theory: predicts when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (assumes there is no absolute threshold) Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, which predispose one's perception, memory, or response Difference threshold: minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli 50% of the time Increases with the size of the stimulus Weber's law: for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount) Sensory adaption: diminished sensitivity as a result of constant stimulation Perceptual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another Perceptions are influenced by motivation and emotion Vision Wavelength: distance from one peak to the next Hue: dimension of color determined by the wavelength of light Intensity: amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude Eyes receive light energy that transduce (transform) it into neural messages that that the brain processes into what we consciously see Pupil: small adjustable opening in eye Iris: muscle around the pupil that dilates or constricts in response to light intensity Lens: structure behind a pupil that focuses images on the retina Retina: tissue on the inner surface that process visual information Accommodation: the process by which the lens focuses Rods: retinal receptors that detect white, gray, and black, necessary for peripheral and twilight vision Cones: retinal receptors that detect color, function in welllit conditions (cluster around the fovea) Optic nerve: carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain Blind spot: absence of receptor cells where the optic nerve leaves the eye YoungHelmholtz trichromatic theory: theory that the retina contains three color receptors (red, blue, and green) that can produce the perception of any color Opponentprocess theory: theory that opposing retinal processes (redgreen, yellowblue, and whiteblack) enable color vision Nonvisual Senses (p. 256277) Hearing Audition: the sense or act of hearing Frequency: the number of wavelengths that pass a point in a given time Frequency theory: theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, enabling the recognition of a pitch; best explains how we sense low pitches Pitch: a tone's experienced highness or lowness (depends on frequency) Place theory: the theory that links the pitch heard to the place where the cochlea is stimulated; best explains how we sense high pitches Combination of place and frequency theories best explain how we sense pitches in the intermediate range Amplitude: height of waves, determines loudness Ear Middle ear: chamber with three bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea Cochlea: tube in the inner ear that triggers nerve impulses Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness): common form of hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea or the auditory nerves Conduction hearing loss: caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea Cochlear implant: device for converting sound into electrical signals for the brain Touch Pain The pain circuit: sensory receptors (nociceptors) respond to stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinal cord, which passes the message as pain to the brain Biological influences Nociceptors sense hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals Gatecontrol theory: the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or opens and lets them pass to the brain Genetic differences in endorphin production Psychological influences Memory and expectations can inaccurately reflect pain Attention to pain Learning based on experience Socialcultural influences Empathy can make someone feel pain Cultural expectations Controlling pain Distraction and endorphins can reduce pain Placebo pain relief Virtualreality pain control tactic for burn victims Body position and movement Kinesthesia: senses position and movement of individual body parts Vestibular sense: the head's sense of body movement and position, including balance Hypnosis: social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur Social influence, selective attention Dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others Posthypnotic suggestion: a suggestion made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized Taste Chemical sense, detected by taste buds on tongue Taste buds reproduce but sensitivity decreases over time Expectations can influence taste Smell Chemical sense, detected by receptor cells on nasal cavity Attractiveness of smells depends on learned association No basic smell receptors Combinations of odor receptors send signals to the brain Sensory interaction: once sense may influence another Embodied cognition: influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and judgments Perception: combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences Sensory System Source Receptors Vision Light waves striking the eye Rods and cones in the retina Hearing Sound waves striking the Cochlear hair cells in the inner ear inner ear Touch Pressure and temperature on Skin receptors detect pain, the skin pressure, and temperature Taste Chemical molecules in the Basic tongue receptors for mouth sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami Smell Chemical molecules Millions of receptors at top breathed in through nose of nasal cavity Body position: kinesthesia Change in position of any Kinesthetic sensors in body part, interacting with joints, tendons, and muscles vision Body movement: vestibular Movement of fluids in the Hairlike receptors in the sense inner ear caused by semicircular canals and head/body movement vestibular sacs Notes from Lecture Chapter 6 Anatomy of the eye Cornea: clear outer membrane Pupil: opening (dark part in center) Iris: colored ring of muscle; opens and closes pupil to let light into eye Lens: focuses light entering pupil onto retina Retina: lines back of eye Photoreceptors: sensory receptors for light (detection and transduction) Cones: color and detail (sensitive to wavelength, visual activity) Perform best in welllit environments Rods: light sensitive, periphery of retina Help us see in lowlight conditions Vision Light goes into eye, photoreceptors get excited and send signals forward to bipolar cells, which send signals to ganglion cells, which form optic nerve Bipolar cells Ganglion cells Optic nerve: carries visual information into brain Blind spot, no photoreceptors Brain fills in missing information Thalamus, visual cortex (occipital lobe), association areas Theories of color vision Trichromatic theory: most widely accepted color vision theory Explains how color is encoded Three types of cones Blue (short wavelength) Green (medium wavelength) Red/yellow (long wavelength) Ratio of activity Color blindness: inability to see one or more colors; may be missing one or more cone types, or a cone may be shifted in its sensitivity to light Dogs and cats lack the red/yellow cone OpponentProcess Theory Explains how color information is processed Three pairings of colorsensitive visual elements Red/green Blue/yellow Black/white Inhibit/oppose each other, only one member (the more active member) of a pair can use a pathway/send messages at a time If one cell has been active for a while, and white light returns, the other cell takes over and the opposite color is seen Explains afterimages Pairings exist among ganglion cells, etc. Both theories are useful because they explain different things Hearing (audition) Sound waves Repetitive vibration in air pressure Amplitude: loudness, decibels (dB) Force with which molecules are hitting each other Frequency: pitch, hertz Hz: number of waves that pass a point in space per second Anatomy of the Ear Outer ear: Pinna: funnels sound into ear canal Ear canal Middle ear Tympanic membrane: eardrum (vibrates with sound) Ossicles: bones that knock into each other Hammer, anvil, stirrup Amplify sound Oval window: vibrates when ossicles vibrate, causes waves in fluid of cochlea Inner ear Cochlea: causes basilar membrane to vibrate and hair cells to bend Basilar membrane and hair cells (auditory receptors) Hair cells send action potentials to auditory nerve Semicircular canals: help with balance High intensity sounds can rip hair cells off of membrane (damage) Auditory areas in CNS Thalamus Primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe) Association areas Coding Pitch Louder sounds activate more hair cells Place theory Sounds of different pitches cause vibration at different places along basilar membrane Some lower pitches cause entire basilar membrane to vibrate Theory does not explain how we distinguish low pitches Frequencymatching theory Auditory nerve fires action potentials to match frequency of sound Neurons can only fire 1000 action potentials per second but we can hear sounds up to 20,000 Hz/second Theory can only explain how we distinguish low pitches Deafness Conduction deafness Damage to middle ear Hearing aids Sensorinerural/nerve deafness Damage to inner ear Cochlear implant Somatosensation: skin senses Thalamus > parietal lobes > somatosensory cortex Touch Temperature Pressure Pain: warns us, protects us from further damage Some people have congenital insensitivity to pain Most die in childhood or early adulthood Emotional/cognitive aspects of pain Stress, depression, and anxiety make pain worse Relaxation, distraction, and optimism decrease pain Perception Influenced by prior experience, knowledge, expectations, and context Brain imposes meaning on ambiguous stimuli Chapter 3 Consciousness: awareness of things happening around you Mental processing without awareness Priming: when prior exposure to a stimulus influences our behavior subconsciously Works by activating networks of associations in our minds that predispose reactions Subliminal stimuli: stimuli that are so faint or weak that we are not consciously aware of them Affect behavior Priming with subliminal stimuli Subliminal persuasion with subliminal messages/stimuli: not as effective as consciously perceived messages Attention: a concentration or focusing of mental activity Selective attention: trying to pay attention to just one thing while ignoring everything else Cocktail party effect: ability to pay attention to one conversation while many other conversations are happing If your name comes up in another conversation, your attention is called, so you may be subconsciously monitoring other conversations Divided attention: trying to focus on 2+ things at once Attention is limited Attention failure Change blindness: failure to detect large changes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'