GEOL 101: Minerals
GEOL 101: Minerals 101-017
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
GEOL 101 122 Earth Materials Rocks and minerals Driving mechanism of plate tectonic Convections hot water rises cools moves laterally sinks warm water rises again Same of the earth s mantle Two models of mantle convection 1 Whole mantle convection the whole 2 Strati ed convection layered convection Mineral a naturally occurring substance Solid ordered crystalline structure 0 t together in a certain way Generally inorganic Has a speci c chemical composition Elements form of matter that cannot be broke down into simpler forms made of atoms Compounds combinations of atoms of one or more elements in specific proportions Minerals naturally occurring solids with speci c chemical compositions and internal structure Rocks naturally occurring aggregates or combinations to one or more minerals Elements to know Oxygen 8 0 Aluminum 13 Al Silicon 14 Si Composition of Earth Iron Oxygen Silicon Magnesium Sulfur Nickel Calcium Aluminum The most abundant elements in the entire earth 0 Listed from most to least in earth weight 0 Make up over 98 of earths weight Earths curst top 3 1 Oxygen 45 2 Silicon 27 3 Aluminum 8 Atoms atomos indivisible Greek The smallest possible unit of an element that retains the physical and a chemical properties of that element A rigid sphere about 1 angstrom At the center of an atom is a nucleus that contains most of the moss of the atom 0 Protons 0 neutrons Electron are found surrounding Carbon atom Electrons negative charge very little mass Protons positive charge mass 1800 times greater than electrons Neutrons no electric charge mass 1800 times greater than electrons of electrons of protons Atomic number the of protons in the nucleus of an atom Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons in the nucleus EX Carbon atom typically has 6 neutrons and 6 protons but there are also small amounts of Ions When an atom loses or gains an electron to from another atom Positively charged ion loss of electron cations Negatively charged ions gain of electron anions Chemical bonds The atoms of elements that make up compounds are held together by electrical forces of attraction between electrons and protons At the atomic level these connections are of the following a Ionic bonding Attraction of ions of opposite charges Simplest chemical bond Ions of opposite charge attract total charge must be to zero 90 of mineral are essentially ionic compounds formed this way Ex sodium chloride halite table salt b Covalent bonding Sharing of electrons in outer shell Most common in carbon Takes less energy to share but creates more energy Involves elements that do not readily form ions Electrons are shared between atoms Much stronger and more stable bonds than ionic bonds Ex carbon atoms in diamonds c Metallic bonding 0 Sharing of an electron cloud around several nuclei 0 Electricity How do minerals form a Crystallization from a magma b Crystal growth in the solid state c Precipitation from solution Classes of mineral Over 3500 recognized minerals on earth Most common types 0 Silicates silicon and oxygen 0 Carbonates carbon and oxygen 0 Oxides oxygen 0 Sul des 0 Sulfates Carbonates Second most abundant group in the Earth s crust Major component of limestone Three major minerals 0 Calcite 0 Aragonite 0 Dolomite Sample Exam Questions Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when he Earth s magnetic eld was a The same as it is today b The same as today except weaker d The same as today except stronger Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral 21 I b Diamond c Gypsum d Rock salt Most of the chemical bonds in common minerals are a Covalent b Metallic d None of the above
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