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GEOL 101 : Sedimentary Rocks and Processes

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101 : Sedimentary Rocks and Processes 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 Sedimentary Rocks and Processes
Natalee Stanton

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Geology 101-017
Class Notes
Geology 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
GEOL 101: Lecture  Sedimentation: Rocks formed by Surface Processes  Sedimentary rocks – layered  ­ The rocks on the bottom are the oldest and the rocks get younger as you move  up to the surface  The rock cycle – sedimentary rocks ­ Sediments and sedimentary rocks (formed from them) are produced by the  surface processes of the rock cycle o Interaction of climate system and lithosphere ­ Think “Energy of the Environment”  Why Care about Sediments? ­ Earth’s surface covered by sediments ­ Sediments record the conditions at the Earth’s Surface at the time of deposition ­ Oil and gas reside in sedimentary rocks ­ Many useful materials produced form sediments and sedimentary rocks  About Sediments  Weathering – breaking down rock or break it down to its elements and then it washes away Erosion – transporting those rocks somewhere else  ­ Sediments are produced on the earth’s surface as a result of weathering ­ Sediments are transported through the process of erosion, and becomes  sedimentary rocks after they come to rest  Types of Sediment ­ Clastic – accumulations of physically transported rock fragments resulting from  weathering of pre­existing rock ­ Chemical accumulation  of substances precipitated form ionic species in water ­ Biochemical – some as chemical, but with the involvement of biologic organisms  Sedimentary rocks  ­ Result from the consolidation of loose sediment derived from previously existing  rocks Or  ­ Form by precipitation of minerals form solution by either organic (biochemical)  or inorganic (chemical) processes  Clastic sedimentary rocks  ­ Characterized by constituent grains o Composition o Size (boulder to clay) o Sorting – different sizes o Rounding ­ All a function of starting material, length of transport, and environment of  deposition  Effect of transportation ­ Sorting – a measure of the variation in the range of grain sizes in a rock or  sediment ­ Well sorted – sediments have been subjected to prolonged water or wind action ­ Poorly – sorted sediments are either not far­ removed from their source or  deposed  Physical Effects of Transport on the Sediments ­ Roundness – measure of the angularity of particles; the less angular, the more  roundness ­ Sphericity: how circular (or spherical) a particle is  ­ Sorting, roundness, and sphericity all increase with the amount of transport  Sedimentary Basin ­ Sediments tend to accumulate in depressions in the Earth’s crust ­ Depressions are formed by subsidence (sinking of the Earth’s surface) ­ Sedimentary basins are depressions filled with thick accumulations of sediment.  They are sinks for sediment.   Sedimentary environments ­ Types of environments: 1. Continental  Lake  River (alluvial)  Desert  Glacier  2. Shoreline  Delta   Tidal flat   Beach  3. Marine  Continental shelf  Organic reef  Continental slope  Deep sea Sedimentary Structures ­ Stratification = bedding= layering ­ Layering is controlled by o Particle size o Types of particles ­ Depositional features  o Ripples o Dunes o Mud cracks  Sample Exam Question  Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content? a. Ultramafic b. Magic c. Intermediate d. Felsic  What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands? a. Peridotite  b. Granite c. Andesite d. Basalt  What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering?  a. Biochemical sediments b. Clastic sediments c. Chemical sediments d. All of the above Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______.  a. Subsidence b. Diagenesis c. Lithification d. Subduction 


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