GEOL 101 : Sedimentary Rocks and Processes
GEOL 101 : Sedimentary Rocks and Processes 101-017
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
GEOL 101: Lecture Sedimentation: Rocks formed by Surface Processes Sedimentary rocks – layered The rocks on the bottom are the oldest and the rocks get younger as you move up to the surface The rock cycle – sedimentary rocks Sediments and sedimentary rocks (formed from them) are produced by the surface processes of the rock cycle o Interaction of climate system and lithosphere Think “Energy of the Environment” Why Care about Sediments? Earth’s surface covered by sediments Sediments record the conditions at the Earth’s Surface at the time of deposition Oil and gas reside in sedimentary rocks Many useful materials produced form sediments and sedimentary rocks About Sediments Weathering – breaking down rock or break it down to its elements and then it washes away Erosion – transporting those rocks somewhere else Sediments are produced on the earth’s surface as a result of weathering Sediments are transported through the process of erosion, and becomes sedimentary rocks after they come to rest Types of Sediment Clastic – accumulations of physically transported rock fragments resulting from weathering of preexisting rock Chemical accumulation of substances precipitated form ionic species in water Biochemical – some as chemical, but with the involvement of biologic organisms Sedimentary rocks Result from the consolidation of loose sediment derived from previously existing rocks Or Form by precipitation of minerals form solution by either organic (biochemical) or inorganic (chemical) processes Clastic sedimentary rocks Characterized by constituent grains o Composition o Size (boulder to clay) o Sorting – different sizes o Rounding All a function of starting material, length of transport, and environment of deposition Effect of transportation Sorting – a measure of the variation in the range of grain sizes in a rock or sediment Well sorted – sediments have been subjected to prolonged water or wind action Poorly – sorted sediments are either not far removed from their source or deposed Physical Effects of Transport on the Sediments Roundness – measure of the angularity of particles; the less angular, the more roundness Sphericity: how circular (or spherical) a particle is Sorting, roundness, and sphericity all increase with the amount of transport Sedimentary Basin Sediments tend to accumulate in depressions in the Earth’s crust Depressions are formed by subsidence (sinking of the Earth’s surface) Sedimentary basins are depressions filled with thick accumulations of sediment. They are sinks for sediment. Sedimentary environments Types of environments: 1. Continental Lake River (alluvial) Desert Glacier 2. Shoreline Delta Tidal flat Beach 3. Marine Continental shelf Organic reef Continental slope Deep sea Sedimentary Structures Stratification = bedding= layering Layering is controlled by o Particle size o Types of particles Depositional features o Ripples o Dunes o Mud cracks Sample Exam Question Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content? a. Ultramafic b. Magic c. Intermediate d. Felsic What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands? a. Peridotite b. Granite c. Andesite d. Basalt What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering? a. Biochemical sediments b. Clastic sediments c. Chemical sediments d. All of the above Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______. a. Subsidence b. Diagenesis c. Lithification d. Subduction
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