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GEOL 101 : Metamorphic Rocks and Processes

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101 : Metamorphic Rocks and Processes 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 Metamorphic Rocks and Processes
Natalee Stanton

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Geology 101-017
Class Notes
Geology 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
GEOL 101  Metamorphic Rocks and Processes  B  The Rock Cycle ­ Any rock can be subject to metamorphism  ­ Many metamorphic rocks originate as sedimentary rocks Diagenesis – chemical and physical processes that change sediments to sedimentary rocks  ­ Compaction – removal of pore space and pore fluid (physical) o Reduces pore space ­ Cementation – precipitation of new minerals between grains (Chemical)  o Chemical precipitation of mineral material between grains binds sediment  into hard rock Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks  ­ Metamorphism – change mineralogy and texture affected by pressure, heat, and  water that results in a more compact and more highly crystalline condition ­ Metamorphic Rock – rock hat has undergone changes in texture, mineralogical, and or chemical composition in the solid state Factors in Metamorphism  ­ Main factors driving metamorphism: o Internal heat of the Earth o Pressures within the Earth o Fluids within the Earth  How Do Rocks Metamorphose? ­ Through partial or complete recrystallization of minerals in the rocks over long  periods of time  ­ Rocks remain in solid state during metamorphism  Role of Pressure ­ Greater pressure tends to decrease the space available for mineral growth: increase  in density ­ Increased pressure can come from any  directed stress (burial, collision) – confining  pressure ­ Stress causes preferred orientation of minerals – differential stress (directed  pressure) Role of temperature ­ Heat – greatly affects a rock’s mineralogy and texture , increases mobility of  elements  ­ Geothermal gradient – measure of variation of temperature with depth ( average  30C/km) Metamorphic Reactions ­ Prograde – mineral changes that take place during am increase in temperature ­ Retrograde – mineral changes that take [lace during a decrease in temperate  Role of Fluids ­ Fluids (H20) acts as a catalyst during metamorphism ­ Aid the exchange of ions between growing crystals ­ Metasomatism – change in a rocks bulk composition by fluid transport of chemical  substance into or out of rock  Metamorphic Grade ­ Refers to the intensity of metamorphism ­ Low grade – low temperature and pressure  ­ High grade – high temperature and pressure  The Amount of Change During Metamorphism Depends on: ­ The grade of metamorphism  ­ The duration of metamorphism  ­ The composition of the rock Changes in Texture are Due to Recrystallization ­ Grain size can increase or decrease ­ Shape of grains can change  ­ Preferred orientation/ arrangement of mineral ­ Directed stress will orient minerals in two ways  o Lineation o Foliations   A set of flat or wavy parallel planes produced by deformation Metamorphic textures ­ Classification of foliated rocks: o Size of crystals  o Nature of foliation  o Degree to which minerals are segregated into bands  o Metamorphic grade 23 Stability of Minerals ­ Most minerals are stable over relatively narrow range of pressure and temperature ­ The stability range of different mineral sometimes overlap and provide insights into  the metamorphic history of rocks Metamorphic facies ­ A given set of metamorphic conditions ­ Each facies is characteristic of particular tectonic environments and has certain  minerals that are indicate of those conditions ­ The minerals in a rock can therefore be clues to the (pressure and temperature)  history of rock ­ Different kinds of metamorphic rocks are formed  o Form parent rocks of different composition at the same grade of  metamorphism o Form parent rocks of the same composition under different grades of  metamorphism Plate Tectonics and Metamorphism ­ Continent­  ocean collision ­ Continent – continent collision  ­ Metamorphism is a dynamic and not a static process  Sample Exam Questions  Which of the following tectonic settings will be coolest at 30 km depth? a. Regions of continental extension b. Stable continental lithosphere c. Volcanic arcs d. Temperature in all three tectonic settings above will be the same at 30kn depth Metamorphic rocks result from the recrystallization of existing rocks while they are still in  a solid state. a. True  b. False Which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade? a. Gneiss b. Phyllite c. Schist d. Slate  A rock exhibiting high grade metamorphism has experienced high temperatures and/ or  pressures.  a. True b. False  The parent rock of a quartzite is ______. a. Sandstone  b. Shale c. Granite d. Limestone 


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