Intro to Ethics Notes 2
Intro to Ethics Notes 2 Philosophy 103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Pamfilis on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 103 at Towson University taught by Dobin Choi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Lecture Notes (2/4/16) What is Ethics? Metaphysics: want to understand what is there Epistemology: philosophical researches on humans (episteme= true belief + logos); what knowledge is, how it can be acquired, its relation to belief, the reliable method for justification o Theory of knowledge (justified true belief) o Certainty of knowledge: how can we achieve certain knowledge (in (empirical) science)? o Truth (aletheia): “cogito, ergo sum” I think, therefore I am (first principle of Descartes) o Psychology: the science of mental life, both its phenomena and their conditions Other branches of philosophy: o Philosophical inquiries on human mental faculties Logic: logos (reason, words, speech, study) Aesthetics: aisthetos (sense perception, rudimentary pathos (passion)) Finding the theoretical foundation of obscure cognition Beauty, sublime, emotion, philosophy of art Ethics: life and right actions, (ethos): habit, dwelling, habitat, custom Mores: Latin translation of ethos, morals Finding theoretical foundation of life and actions Good/evil, right/wrong, virtue/vice, right/duty, justice “all wisdom comes from god, only the wise can achieve what they desire” Why is there no social science in the Liberal Arts? o Due to the closed hierarchal society of Medieval times o Social science requires human individual liberalization to form a society of equality o Social sciences bloomed after the French revolution Branches of Ethics o Normative ethical theories “how one ought to act morally” Develops theories about right actions What action is right or wrong in particular circumstances? How can we determine rightness? Gives norms to act on and theoretical methods for their establishment Arguing about fundamental source of moral obligation, moral permissibility, moral desirability o Why are we obligated to do that action? (Because it is a right action. It is right because…?) Branch 1: Consequentialism: determine the right from the good (of consequence) Utilitarianism (Mill): hedonistic consequentialism o An action is morally right, if and only if, it maximizes the utility o How do we define the good of utility? Maximization? o Standards/methods of calculation? o Whose utility and interest? The difference of inequality of beneficiaries: moral agents would not always be beneficiary Branch 2: Deontology: duty theory Deon-: the necessity, duty, what we ought to do Determines rightness of action from conformity to pre-established moral norms and principles of the right The produced good has nothing to do with morality How do we get norms of the right? Foundation of norms? Branch 3: Virtue Ethics: Aretaic moral theory Arête: excellence, virtue Inquiry on character traits a person should have How to lead a good life by being a good person (Ancient Greek Morals) Emphasizes virtuous motive
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