Chapter 2: Diversity in Organizations
Chapter 2: Diversity in Organizations MGMT 3720
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alora Lornklang on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3720 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. James D. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Chapter Review Chapter 2: Diversity in Organizations 1. Describe the two major forms of workforce diversity. Surfacelevel diversity o Differences in easily perceived characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but they may activate certain stereotypes. Deeplevel diversity o Differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better. 2. Recognize stereotypes and understand how they function in organizational settings. Discrimination: Noting of a difference between things; often we refer to unfair discrimination, which means making judgments about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group. Types of discrimination: o Discriminatory policies or practices Actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance. o Sexual Harassment: Unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment. o Intimidation: Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees o Mockery and insults: Jokes or negative stereotypes; sometimes the result of jokes taken too far o Exclusion: Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring; can occur unintentionally o Incivility: Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring his or her opinions. 3. Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB. Biographical characteristics o Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure— that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surfacelevel diversity. Age o Studies show that older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence vs. younger employees and equal rates of unavoidable absence. o Age and job task performance are unrelated and older workers are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior. o Combating age discrimination may be associated with higher levels of organizational performance. Sex o There are no consistent malefemale differences in problemsolving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability. o Female students are prone to accept occupational stereotypes and often perceive a lack of fit between themselves and traditionally male roles. o As with age discrimination, the evidence suggests that combating sex discrimination may be associated with better performance for the organization as a whole, partially since employees who are discriminated against are more likely to leave. Race and Ethnicity o Evidence suggests some people find interacting with other racial groups uncomfortable unless there are clear behavioral scripts to guide their behavior. o In employment settings, individuals tend to slightly favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, and pay raises, although such differences are not found consistently, especially when highly structured methods of decision making are employed. o African Americans and Hispanics perceive discrimination to be more prevalent in the workplace. o African Americans generally fare worse than Whites in employment decisions. o While better representation of all racial groups in organizations remains a goal, recent research indicates that an individual of minority status is much less likely to leave their organization if there is a feeling of inclusiveness. Disability o According to ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces will be accessible to individuals with physical or mental disabilities. o US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a person as disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. o Evidences suggests workers with disabilities receive higher performance evaluations but individuals with disabilities tend to encounter lower performance expectations and are less likely to be hired. o These workers are sometimes given preferential treatment o These workers are rated as having superior personal qualities like dependability and potency Tenure o Research suggests past behavior is best predictor of future behavior o Seniority and job productivity = Positive relationship o Seniority and absenteeism = Negative relationship o Tenure and job satisfaction = Positive relationship Religion o Faith can be an employment issue when religious beliefs prohibit or encourage certain behaviors. Ex: Some pharmacists refuse to give out the “morning after” pill. o Religious individuals may also believe they have an obligation to express their beliefs in the workplace, and those who do not share those beliefs may object. o Religious discrimination claims have been a growing source of discrimination claims in the US. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity o The Federal government has prohibited discrimination against government employees based on sexual orientation. o The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has recently held that sexstereotyping against lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals represents gender discrimination enforceable under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. o Companies are increasingly putting in place policies to govern how their organizations treat transgender employees. o While the times have certainly changed, sexual orientation and gender identity remain individual differences that receive different treatments under our laws and are accepted quite differently in different organizations. Cultural Identity o Cultural identity: a link with the culture of family ancestry or youth that lasts a lifetime o Cultural norms influence the workplace, sometimes resulting in clashes. o Thanks to global integration and changing labor markets, global companies do well to understand and respect the cultural identities of their employees, both as groups and individuals. o A company seeking to be sensitive to the cultural identities of its employees should look beyond accommodating its majority groups and instead create as much of an individualized approach to practices and norms as possible. 4. Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB. Ability: an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual abilities: o The capacity to do mental activities—thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. General mental ability: An overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions. Research consistently indicates a correlation between cognitive ability and task performance. The more complex a job in terms of informationprocessing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform successfully. The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero. o Although intelligent people perform better and tend to have more interesting jobs, they are also more critical when evaluating their job conditions. 5. Contrast intellectual and physical ability. Physical abilities: o The capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. Nine Basic Physical Abilities o Strength factors: Dynamic strength: ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time. Trunk strength: ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk muscles (abs) Static strength: ability to exert force against external objects. Explosive strength: Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts. o Flexibility factors: Extent flexibility: ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible Dynamic flexibility: ability to make rapid, repeatedly flexing movements o Other factors: Body coordination: ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body Balance: Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance Stamina: Ability to continue maximum effort requiring Diversity management: The process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. 6. Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively. Effective, comprehensive workforce programs encouraging diversity have three distinct components: 1) Teach managers about the legal framework and equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics. 2) Teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients. 3) Foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.
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