World Civ 2 Chapter 24 outline
World Civ 2 Chapter 24 outline HIST 1120
University of Memphis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 at University of Memphis taught by White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see World Civilization II in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 24 Outline Chronology 1492- ﬁrst voyage of Christopher Columbus to the western hemisphere 1494- Treaty of Tordesillas 1500- Brazil claimed for Portugal by Pedro Alvarez de Cabral 1518- smallpox epidemic in the Caribbean 1519-1521- Spanish conquest of Mexico 1532-1540- Spanish conquest of Peru 1545- Spanish discovery of silver near Potosí 1604- Foundation of Port Royal (Nova Scotia) 1607- Foundation of Jamestown 1608- Foundation of Quebec 1623- Foundation of New Amsterdam 1630- Foundation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony 1688- smallpox epidemic on Guam 1768-1779- Captain James Cook’s exploration of the Paciﬁc Ocean 1788- Establishment of the ﬁrst European colony in Australia The Spanish Caribbean - ﬁrst interaction between American and European peoples - Tainos were the most prominent people at the time - Hispaniola was the Spanish base - occasionally organized rebellions against the Spanish settlers - 1518 smallpox epidemic in the Caribbean - Spanish established plantations instead of mining The Conquest of Mexico and Peru - Spanish conquistadors moved to Mexico to take over - Hernán Cortés drove out the Aztecs - smallpox epidemic raged through the city - Francisco Pizzaro led an expedition to Peru - took over the Inca peoples and their cities - looted gold from their temples - smallpox epidemic of Peru Iberian Empires in the Americas - conquests of Mexico and Peru were done by freelance adventures - monarchy took controller the territories - audiencias to keep control over viceroys - difﬁculties with transportation and communication - Portuguese established imperial presence in Brazil - did nit attract Portuguese attention at ﬁrst - proﬁtable once plantations were made - Settlers like to live in cities not rural areas - presence contributed to the making of the New world Settler Colonies in North America - French settlers established Port Royal and Quebec - English founded Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay Colony - Dutch founded New Amsterdam - French settled into Canada - English established colonies on the New England coast - settler life was extremely difﬁcult - relied on provisions sent from Europe - some resorted to cannibalism - English settlements maintained their own assemblies - took land from Native Americans - frequently clashed with colonists The Formation of Multicultural Societies - Mestizo societies began from Europeans marrying indigenous peoples - some recreated European lifestyles - different race marriages became common in Brazil - migrants born in Europe were known as peninsulares - top of the social hierarchy - criollos, born in the Americas of Iberian parents - mulattoes and zambos became prominent - slaves and native peoples were at the bottom - race and ethnicity were crucial but so was sexuality - women lived in a patriarchal world - power was limited to the conﬁnes of their homes - female slaves had harder lives than those of European descent in Brazil - English women were more numerous then men - colonists considered natives to be heathens - scorned African-American slaves as well - readily borrowed cultural elements from other societies Mining and Agriculture in the Spanish Empire - silver was the most abundant treasure in America - concentrated in South America - created demand for labor - mita system required 1/7 of the male population to work for 4 months in the mines - little payment and harsh conditions - death rates were very high - powered the Spanish economy - silver maddest way back to Spain - the most prominent place for agriculture was the Hacienda - bordered by smaller plantations - labor came from indigenous people - resorted to debt peonage to recruit workers - never could repay debt so they never could leave their landowners - met resistance from indigenous peoples Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese - Brazilian life centered around the engenho, “sugar mill” - search for labor but to no avail - turned to African slaves for labor - little incentive to improve conditions for slaves Fur Traders and Settlers in North America - fur trade became more lucrative than other animals - populations of animals became endangered or extinct - fur trade displaced indigenous peoples - tobacco farming became a cash crop and widely popular - indentured servitude for cheap labor - african-american slaves appeared in 1619 - became very popular in the South eventually Christianity and Native Religions in the Americas - Spain wanted to christianize its territories - Christianity took over in South America - French and English did not attract as many converts Australia and the Larger World - Dutch mariners visited Australia - considered natives savages - people became interested in Australia after James Cook charted the land - suitable for settlement - mostly for convicted criminals The Paciﬁc Islands and the Larger World - Magellan and his crew ﬁrst to cross the Paciﬁc Ocean - didn’t establish constant communication with Paciﬁc islanders - Guam attracted Spanish interest - English and French explored the Paciﬁc Ocean basin - started trade with inlanders - European/Euro-Americans became prominent in the Paciﬁc
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