Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes Psychology 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
What is Psychology Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes Greek roots: • Psyche- mind • Logos- study or knowledge Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology • Behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, cognitive, sociocultural • Eclectic approach: drawing from theories and principles representing different perspectives • Positive psychology: emphasizes the study of human virtues and assets, rather than weaknesses and deficits Important People Wilhelm Wundt • Opened first research laboratory o Event marked the transition of psychology from a philosophy to a science • Introspection: inward focusing on mental experiences, such as sensations or feelings • Structuralism: attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its component parts William James • Functionalism • Psychology should focus on how our behavior and mental processes help us adapt to the demands we face in the world John Watson • Behavioralism: what we do is less important than why we do it • Psychology should focus on how our behavior and mental processes help us adapt to the demands we face in the world Max Wertheimer • Gestalt psychology: the whole is greater than the sum of the parts • Gestalt: German word meaning “unitary form” or “pattern” • Studies the ways in which the brain organizes and structures our perceptions of the world Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis • The view that behavior is influenced by the struggle between unconscious sexual or aggressive impulses and opposing forces that try to keep this threatening material out of consciousness • Dream analysis, Freudian slip, unconscious Psychologist Employment • Colleges, universities, medical • Nonprofit organizations schools • Schools • Government agencies • For-profit, self-employment Areas of Specialization • Clinical • Developmental • Etc. • Educational • Counseling • Health • Industrial, organizational • Experimental • School • Cognitive Research Methods in Psychology 2 basic types of research • Basic: focuses on acquiring knowledge even if such knowledge has no direct practical application • Applied: attempts to find solutions to specific problems Common misconceptions about psychology • Psychologists can read peoples minds o No they cannot, one put it “if you want to know what people are thinking, ask them, they just might tell you” • Psychology is not a true science o It is a true science because it is grounded in the scientific method 4 steps to the scientific method • Developing a research question: drawing on theory, observations, experiences, or common beliefs to formulate a researchable question o Theory: a formulation that accounts for relationships among observed events or experimental findings in ways that make them more understandable and predictable • Forming a hypothesis: reframing the question so that it becomes a specific prediction that can be tested through research o Hypothesis: a precise and testable prediction about the outcomes of an experiment • Gathering evidence: testing the hypothesis • Drawing conclusions: using statistical methods of analysis to determine whether the data support the hypothesis • Replication: replicating the study to make changes or additions A case study is an in-depth report on a single individual that may be based on interviews, psychological testing, and so on. A survey method uses structured interviews or questionnaires to gather information abut groups of people • Population: the entire group of people you are studying • Sample: a small group of the population that represents the population • Random selection Limitations: • Social desirability: the tendency to answer questions in a socially desirable manner • Memory • Self reported information Naturalistic observation method • Observing and recording the behavior of animals in naturally occurring situations o Natural habitat Correlational method • Correlation- used to examine relationships between variables • Correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables Closer to 1, the stronger the correlation and bond. Closer to 0, the weaker the correlation and bond. • High scores on X are associated with high scores on Y, and low scores on X are associated with low scores on Y (POSITIVE CORRELATION) • High scores on X are associated with low scores on Y, and low scores on X are associated with high scores on Y (NEGATIVE CORRELATION) • Illusory correlation: the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists o Parents conceive children after adoption Experimental Method • Allows for investigation of cause and effect relationships • A scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions • Independent variable: a factor manipulated by the experimenter • Dependent variable: a factor that may change in response to an independent variable; observed • Control group: do not receive the independent variable • Operational definition • Random assignment: participants randomly assigned to control or experimental group • Designing experiments: o Placebo effects: Do our expectations influence the outcomes we experience? o Single blind studies: participants do not know if they are in an experimental or control group o Double blind studies: neither the participants or the researchers know who is in the control or experimental groups Ethical Principles in Psychological Research • Code of ethic/ Ethical guidelines for animal research o Ex: when deception can be used o Ethics review committees (IRBs) • Important ethical requirements o Informed consent o Confidentiality Features of Critical Thinking • Question everything • Clarify meaning • Avoid oversimplifying • Avoid overgeneralizing • Don’t confuse correlation with causation • Examine the assumptions on which claims are based • Examine sources of claims • Question the evidence on which claims are based • Consider alternative ways of explaining claims • Think critically about online information o Don’t suspend your skeptical attitude when online o Most trustworthy online information comes from well known scientific sources
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