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Chapter 3 Notes

by: Shanna Beyer

Chapter 3 Notes HIST 1110

Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

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ancient Egypt and Africa
World Civilization I Honors
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 3: Ancient Egypt and Early African Society Development of African Agriculture - Sahara Desert originally highly fertile region - Eastern Sudan region dominated by nomadic herders, domestication of cattle and wild grains c.9000 BCE - 7500 BCE cultivation of sorghum and yams - widespread domestication of the Sahara c. 5000 BCE The Gift of the Nile - gradual predictable flooding - inundation (June-Sept) - sowing/sprouting (winter to early spring) - harvest (late spring) - communication: - Nubia-Egypt - current: north - winds: south - sub-saharan africa- mesopotamia - increased importance with desiccation Early Agriculture in the Nile Valley - 10,000 BCE migrants from the Red Sea hills (Northern Ethiopia) - introduced wild grains, language of Coptic (Egyptian) - 5,000 BCE, Sudanese cultivators, herders migrate to Nile River Valley - adaptation to seasonal flooding of Nile through the construction of waterways and dykes - by 4,000 BCE, villages dot the Nile valley Impact on Political Organization - Mesopotamia: public works to control flash floods - Egypt: simple, local irrigation - rural rather than urban development - trade networks begin to develop with grain surplus - organization contributed to growth of towns and cities - government authority need to control water supply - collect agricultural surplus for its defense efforts against internal and external threats Unification of Egypt - legendary conqueror Menes (Narmer) c.3100 BCE unifies Egypt - founder of Memphis, the cultural and political center of Egypt - instituted rule of the pharaoh - claimed direct decent from gods (son of Re) - absolute rule, had slaves buried with them, 2600 BCE - most powerful during the Archaic Period (3100-2660 BCE) and Old Kingdom (2660-2160 BCE) The Pyramids - early architecture of the Old Kingdom - tallest structures in the world until the 19th century - 2m blocks, weighing 60 tons - role: burila chambers for pharaohs (afterlife) Nubia - competition over Nile trade - military conflict between 3100-2600 BCE - Egypt drives Nubia to the South - Kush established 2500 BCE - Trade, cultural influences continue despite military conflict Turmoil and Empire - increase in agricultural productivity leads to rise of power and decline in central power, 2160-2040 BCE - beginning of the Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BCE) - Pharaoh’s authority challenged by local rulers - invasions of the Hyksos from southwest Asia , 1674 BCE - semetic peoples, horse riders, broke weaponry - driven out by local military efforts, creator of the new Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) The New Kingdom - few pyramids, many temples - engaged in empire building to protect against invaders - local resistance drives out Nubia - Kush revives 100 BCE - invasion of Kushites, then Assyrians destroy Egypt by mid-6th century (650s) Egyptian Urban Culture - major cities built on Nile Delta - Memphis 3100 BCE, Heliopolis 2900 BCE - Nubian Cities: Kerma, Napata, Meroë - located at cataracts - well-defined social classes - pharaoh to slaves - discoveries in Nubia support class-based society - patriarchal societies, few exceptions; female pharaoh Hepsheput (r. 1473-1458 BCE) Economic Specialization - bronze metallurgy introduced (1640-1570 BCE) - Iron 900 BCE - trade along the Nile river - more difficult with Nubia due to cataracts - sea trade in Mediterranean (Phoenicians, Hebrews, Greeks) Hieroglyphs - “sacred writing” - preserved on papyrus, made from reeds - simplified form: hieratic scripts 2600 BCE-600 CE - Rosetta Stone, discovered 1799 - Hieroglyphs, followed by - demotic (“popular”) script - greek - pictographs - merotic languages recorded in alphabet later 5th c. BCE Development of Organized Religious Traditions - principal god Amon (king of gods) and Re (sun god), used in combination (amon-re), another title for pharaoh - religious tumult under Amentohep r. 1364-1347 BCE - introduced monotheistic worship of sun god Aton (similar to Re) - during brief reign of Tutankhamen, the boy pharaoh, the priests restored the old system Mummification and the Afterlife - inspiration of the life cycle and the Nile - belief in the revival of the dead; seasonal agricultural rebirth - first: ruling classes only; later expanded to include lower classes - cult of Osiris (Isis, Horus, Seth) - originally, afterlife only for nobility and wealthy - later, role of Osiris as “Judge of Morality” for all Bantu Migration 3000-1000 BCE - Bantu: “people” - migration through sub-saharan regions - population pressure - over 500 variations of original Bantu languages - by 1000 BCE, occupied most of Africa south of the equator Bantu Religions - evidence of early monotheism - deistic views as well (God as remote creator) - prayers to intercessors, ancestor spirits - like China, ancestor variations - great variations among populations


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