EAPS 116: Week 3 of Notes
EAPS 116: Week 3 of Notes EAPS 116
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Weinkauf on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAPS 116 at Purdue University taught by Julie Elliot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Earthquake and Volcanos in Earth Sciences at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Lecture 5: January 26, 2016 Earthquakes: Causes and Cycles Movement of Magma and other fluids in a volcano Landslides Underground testing of atomic weapons Meteorite impacts Formation of a new fault Slip on an existing fault Faults Fault – a fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Fault Trace (fault line) – the intersection between a fault and the ground surface. Displacement (offset) – the amount of movement or slip across a fault plane. Fault Scarp – a small step on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other. Types of Faults - p.221 o Normal Fault – hanging wall moves downward o Reverse/Thrust Fault – hanging wall moves up o Strike-slip Fault – one block slides past another – no vertical displacement Left-Lateral – other side of fault moved left of where you are standing Right-Lateral – other side of fault moved right of where you are standing Forming a New Fault Elastic bending – small cracks in earth’s surface Cracking – growing cracks Rupture/Sliding – through-going rupture All caused by Friction, Stress, and Strain on a fault Strike Slip Behavior – constant slip on a fault Elastic Rebound Theory – the concept that earthquakes happen because stress builds up, causing rock adjacent to a fault to bend elastically until breaking and slip on a fault occurs; the slip relaxes the elastic bending and decreases stress. Earthquake Cycle Locked vs. Freely Slipping/Creeping o Locked – part of the fault that is stuck together o Freely slipping – part of fault that is free to slip 1. Interseismic – time between earthquakes 2. Preseismic – the time before an earthquake 3. Coseismic – the time during an earthquake when fault overcomes friction and plates slide past 4. Postseismic – the time after an earthquake – earth readjusts Lecture 6: January 28, 2016 Measuring and Documenting Earthquakes Hypocenter – where an earthquake starts Epicenter – the surface projection of hypocenter Seismic Waves Body Waves – pass through earth’s interior o Compression or Primary (P) Waves – fastest traveling waves o Shear or Secondary (S) Waves – motion perpendicular – through solid material only – slower than P waves Surface Waves o Can on travel at earth’s surface o Slowest/Most Destructive Seismic Waves o AKA - Love Waves or Rayleigh Waves For all seismic waves, energy decreases the further away they travel. Triangulation – the method for determining the map location of a point from knowing the distance between that point and three other points – used to locate an earthquake’s epicenter The Lithosphere is Rigid while the Asthenosphere is Able to Flow. What features might you expect to find at a divergent boundary? o Pillow basalts, hydrothermal vents and thinned lithospheric mantle Which of the below was NOT included in an explanation of why an earthquake occurs? o A tiger Alfred Wegener used the distribution of climatic patterns, glacial deposits, and fossils as support for continental drift. A theory is NOT the same as a hypothesis.
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